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Table of Contents

s

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

     ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to

Commission file number 1-12154

Waste Management, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

73-1309529

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1001 Fannin Street

Houston, Texas

77002

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

(713) 512-6200

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

WM

New York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulations S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes   No

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2019 was approximately $48.8 billion. The aggregate market value was computed by using the closing price of the common stock as of that date on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). (For purposes of calculating this amount only, all directors and executive officers of the registrant have been treated as affiliates.)

The number of shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value, of the registrant outstanding as of February 7, 2020 was 424,708,758 (excluding treasury shares of 205,573,703).

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Document

   

Incorporated as to

Proxy Statement for the
2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders

Part III

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

15

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

29

Item 2.

Properties

29

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

30

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

30

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

31

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

32

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

32

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

59

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

61

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

126

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

126

Item 9B.

Other Information

127

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

127

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

127

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

127

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

127

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

127

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits

128

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

130

2

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1. Business.

General

Waste Management, Inc. is a holding company and all operations are conducted by its subsidiaries. When the terms “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” are used in this document, those terms refer to Waste Management, Inc., its consolidated subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entities. When we use the term “WM,” we are referring only to Waste Management, Inc., the parent holding company.

WM was incorporated in Oklahoma in 1987 under the name “USA Waste Services, Inc.” and was reincorporated as a Delaware company in 1995. In a 1998 merger, the Illinois-based waste services company formerly known as Waste Management, Inc. became a wholly-owned subsidiary of WM and changed its name to Waste Management Holdings, Inc. (“WM Holdings”). At the same time, our parent holding company changed its name from USA Waste Services to Waste Management, Inc. Like WM, WM Holdings is a holding company and all operations are conducted by subsidiaries. For details on the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of WM, WM Holdings and their subsidiaries, see Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Our principal executive offices are located at 1001 Fannin Street, Houston, Texas 77002. Our telephone number is (713) 512-6200. Our website address is www.wm.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K are all available, free of charge, on our website as soon as practicable after we file the reports with the SEC. Our stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “WM.”

We are North America’s leading provider of comprehensive waste management environmental services. We partner with our residential, commercial, industrial and municipal customers and the communities we serve to manage and reduce waste at each stage from collection to disposal, while recovering valuable resources and creating clean, renewable energy. Our “Solid Waste” business is operated and managed locally by our subsidiaries that focus on distinct geographic areas and provide collection, transfer, disposal, and recycling and resource recovery services. Through our subsidiaries, we are also a leading developer, operator and owner of landfill gas-to-energy facilities in the United States (“U.S.”). During 2019, our largest customer represented less than 2% of annual revenues. We employed approximately 44,900 people as of December 31, 2019.

We own or operate 249 landfill sites, which is the largest network of landfills in North America. In order to make disposal more practical for larger urban markets, where the distance to landfills is typically farther, we manage 302 transfer stations that consolidate, compact and transport waste efficiently and economically. We also use waste to create energy, recovering the gas produced naturally as waste decomposes in landfills and using the gas in generators to make electricity. We are a leading recycler in North America, handling materials that include paper, cardboard, glass, plastic and metal. We provide cost-efficient, environmentally sound recycling programs for municipalities, businesses and households across the U.S. and Canada as well as other services that supplement our Solid Waste business.

Our Company’s goals are targeted at serving our customers, our employees, the environment, the communities in which we work and our stockholders. Increasingly, customers want more of their waste materials recovered while waste streams are becoming more complex, and our aim is to address the current needs, while anticipating the expanding and evolving needs of our customers.

We believe we are uniquely equipped to meet the challenges of the changing waste industry and our customers’ waste management needs, both today and as we work together to envision and create a more sustainable future. As the waste industry leader, we have the expertise necessary to collect and handle our customers’ waste efficiently and responsibly by delivering environmental performance — maximizing resource value, while minimizing environmental impact — so that both our economy and our environment can thrive.

3

Table of Contents

Our fundamental strategy has not changed; we remain dedicated to providing long-term value to our stockholders by successfully executing our core strategy of focused differentiation and continuous improvement. We are enabling a people-first, technology-led focus, that leverages and sustains the strongest asset network in the industry to drive best-in-class customer experience and growth. Our strategic planning processes appropriately consider that the future of our business and the industry can be influenced by changes in economic conditions, the competitive landscape, the regulatory environment, asset and resource availability and technology. We believe that focused differentiation, which is driven by capitalizing on our unique and extensive network of assets, will deliver profitable growth and position us to leverage competitive advantages. Simultaneously, we believe the combination of cost control, process improvement and operational efficiency will deliver on the Company’s strategy of continuous improvement and yield an attractive total cost structure and enhanced service quality. While we will continue to monitor emerging diversion technologies that may generate additional value and related market dynamics, our current attention will be on improving existing diversion technologies, such as our recycling operations.

We believe that execution of our strategy will deliver shareholder value and leadership in a dynamic industry. In addition, we intend to continue to return value to our stockholders through dividend payments and our common stock repurchase program. In December 2019, we announced that our Board of Directors expects to increase the quarterly dividend from $0.5125 to $0.545 per share for dividends declared in 2020, which is a 6.3% increase from the quarterly dividends we declared in 2019. This is an indication of our ability to generate strong and consistent cash flows and marks the 17th consecutive year of dividend increases. All quarterly dividends will be declared at the discretion of our Board of Directors and depend on various factors, including our net earnings, financial condition, cash required for future business plans, growth and acquisitions and other factors the Board of Directors may deem relevant.

Operations

General

We evaluate, oversee and manage the financial performance of our Solid Waste business subsidiaries through our 17 Areas. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about our reportable segments. We also provide additional services that are not managed through our Solid Waste business, as described below. These operations are presented in this report as “Other.” The services we currently provide include collection, landfill (solid and hazardous waste landfills), transfer, recycling and resource recovery and other services, as described below.

Collection. Our commitment to customers begins with a vast waste collection network. Collection involves picking up and transporting waste and recyclable materials from where it was generated to a transfer station, material recovery facility (“MRF”) or disposal site. We generally provide collection services under one of two types of arrangements:

For commercial and industrial collection services, typically we have a three-year service agreement. The fees under the agreements are influenced by factors such as collection frequency, type of collection equipment we furnish, type and volume or weight of the waste collected, distance to the disposal facility, labor costs, cost of disposal and general market factors. As part of the service, we provide steel containers to most customers to store their solid waste between pick-up dates. Containers vary in size and type according to the needs of our customers and the restrictions of their communities. Many are designed to be lifted mechanically and either emptied into a truck’s compaction hopper or directly into a disposal site. By using these containers, we can service most of our commercial and industrial customers with trucks operated by only one employee.
For most residential collection services, we have a contract with, or a franchise granted by, a municipality, homeowners’ association or some other regional authority that gives us the exclusive right to service all or a portion of the homes in an area. These contracts or franchises are typically for periods of three to 10 years. We also provide services under individual monthly subscriptions directly to households. The fees for residential collection are either paid by the municipality or authority from their tax revenues or service charges, or are paid directly by the residents receiving the service.

Landfill. Landfills are the main depositories for solid waste in North America. As of December 31, 2019, we owned or operated 244 solid waste landfills and five secure hazardous waste landfills, which represents the largest network of

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landfills in North America. Solid waste landfills are constructed and operated on land with engineering safeguards that limit the possibility of water and air pollution, and are operated under procedures prescribed by regulation. A landfill must meet federal, state or provincial, and local regulations during its design, construction, operation and closure. The operation and closure activities of a solid waste landfill include excavation, construction of liners, continuous spreading and compacting of waste, covering of waste with earth or other acceptable material and constructing final capping of the landfill. These operations are carefully planned to maintain environmentally safe conditions and to maximize the use of the airspace.

All solid waste management companies must have access to a disposal facility, such as a solid waste landfill. The significant capital requirements of developing and operating a landfill serve as a barrier to landfill ownership and, thus, third-party haulers often dispose of waste at our landfills. It is usually preferable for our collection operations to use disposal facilities that we own or operate, a practice we refer to as internalization, rather than using third-party disposal facilities. Internalization generally allows us to realize higher consolidated margins and stronger operating cash flows. The fees charged at disposal facilities, which are referred to as tipping fees, are based on several factors, including competition and the type and weight or volume of solid waste deposited.

Under environmental laws, the federal government (or states with delegated authority) must issue permits for all hazardous waste landfills. All of our hazardous waste landfills have obtained the required permits, although some can accept only certain types of hazardous waste. These landfills must also comply with specialized operating standards. Only hazardous waste in a stable, solid form, which meets regulatory requirements, can be deposited in our secure disposal cells. In some cases, hazardous waste can be treated before disposal. Generally, these treatments involve the separation or removal of solid materials from liquids and chemical treatments that transform waste into inert materials that are no longer hazardous. Our hazardous waste landfills are sited, constructed and operated in a manner designed to provide long-term containment of waste. We also operate a hazardous waste facility at which we isolate treated hazardous waste in liquid form by injection into deep wells that have been drilled in certain acceptable geologic formations far below the base of fresh water to a point that is safely separated by other substantial geological confining layers.

Transfer. As of December 31, 2019, we owned or operated 302 transfer stations in North America. We deposit waste at these stations, as do other waste haulers. The solid waste is then consolidated and compacted to reduce the volume and increase the density of the waste and transported by transfer trucks or by rail to disposal sites.

Access to transfer stations is critical to haulers who collect waste in areas not in close proximity to disposal facilities. Fees charged to third parties at transfer stations are usually based on the type and volume or weight of the waste deposited at the transfer station, the distance to the disposal site, market rates for disposal costs and other general market factors.

The utilization of our transfer stations by our own collection operations improves internalization by allowing us to retain fees that we would otherwise pay to third parties for the disposal of the waste we collect. It enables us to manage costs associated with waste disposal because (i) transfer trucks, railcars or rail containers have larger capacities than collection trucks, allowing us to deliver more waste to the disposal facility in each trip; (ii) waste is accumulated and compacted at transfer stations that are strategically located to increase the efficiency of our network of operations and (iii) we can retain the volume by managing the transfer of the waste to one of our own disposal sites.

The transfer stations that we operate but do not own generally are operated through lease agreements under which we lease property from third parties. There are some instances where transfer stations are operated under contract, generally for municipalities. In most cases, we own the permits and will be responsible for any regulatory requirements relating to the operation and closure of the transfer station.

Recycling. Our recycling operations provide communities and businesses with an alternative to traditional landfill disposal and support our strategic goals to extract more value from the materials we manage. We were the first major solid waste company to focus on residential single-stream recycling, which allows customers to mix recyclable paper, plastic and glass in one bin. Residential single-stream programs have greatly increased the recycling volumes. Single-stream recycling is possible through the use of various mechanized screens and optical sorting technologies. We have also been advancing the single-stream recycling programs for commercial applications. Recycling involves the separation of

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reusable materials from the waste stream for processing and resale or other disposition. Our recycling operations include the following:

Materials processing — Through our collection operations, we collect recyclable materials from residential, commercial and industrial customers and direct these materials to one of our MRFs for processing. As of December 31, 2019, we operated 103 MRFs where paper, cardboard, metals, plastics, glass, construction and demolition materials and other recycling commodities are recovered for resale or redirected for other purposes.

Recycling commodities — We market and resell recycling commodities globally. We manage the marketing of recycling commodities that are processed in our facilities by maintaining comprehensive service centers that continuously analyze market prices, logistics, market demands and product quality.

Recycling brokerage services — We also provide recycling brokerage services, which involve managing the marketing of recyclable materials for third parties. The experience of our recycling operations in managing recycling commodities for our own operations gives us the expertise needed to effectively manage volumes for third parties. Utilizing the resources and knowledge of our recycling operations’ service centers, we can assist customers in marketing and selling their recycling commodities with minimal capital requirements.

Some of the recyclable materials processed in our MRFs are purchased from various sources, including third parties and our own operations. The price we pay for recyclable materials is often referred to as a “rebate.” In some cases, rebates are based on fixed contractual rates or on defined minimum per-ton rates but are generally based upon the price we receive for sales of processed goods, market conditions and transportation costs. As a result, changes in commodity prices for recycled materials also significantly affect the rebates we pay to our suppliers and depending on the key terms of the agreement are recorded as either operating expenses or a reduction in operating revenues within our Consolidated Statements of Operations, subsequent to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09 on January 1, 2018. In recent years, we have been focused on revising our rebate structures to ensure that we cover our cost of handling and processing the materials and generate an acceptable margin on the materials we process and sell.

Other. Other services we provide include the following:

Although many waste management services such as collection and disposal are local services, our strategic accounts organization, which is managed by our Strategic Business Solutions (“WMSBS”) organization, works with customers whose locations span the U.S. and Canada. Our strategic accounts program provides centralized customer service, billing and management of accounts to streamline the administration of customers multiple locations’ waste management needs.

Our Energy and Environmental Services (“EES”) organization offers our customers in all Areas a variety of services in collaboration with our Area and strategic accounts programs, including (i) construction and remediation services; (ii) services associated with the disposal of fly ash, residue generated from the combustion of coal and other fuel stocks; (iii) in-plant services, where our employees work full-time inside our customers’ facilities to provide full-service waste management solutions and consulting services; this service is managed through our EES organization but reflected principally in our collection line of business and (iv) specialized disposal services for oil and gas exploration and production operations; revenues for this service are also reflected principally in our collection line of business. Our vertically integrated waste management operations enable us to provide customers with full management of their waste. The breadth of our service offerings and the familiarity we have with waste management practices gives us the unique ability to assist customers in minimizing the amount of waste they generate, identifying recycling opportunities, determining the most efficient means available for waste collection and disposal and ensuring that disposal is achieved in a manner that is both reflective of the current regulatory environment and environmentally friendly.

We develop, operate and promote projects for the beneficial use of landfill gas through our WM Renewable Energy organization. Landfill gas is produced naturally as waste decomposes in a landfill. The methane component of the landfill gas is a readily available, renewable energy source that can be gathered and used beneficially as an alternative to fossil fuel. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) endorses landfill gas as a renewable energy resource, in the same category as wind, solar and geothermal resources. As of December 31, 2019, we had 124 landfill gas beneficial use

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projects producing commercial quantities of methane gas at owned or operated landfills. For 97 of these projects, the processed gas is used to fuel electricity generators. The electricity is then sold to public utilities, municipal utilities or power cooperatives. For 15 of these projects, the landfill gas is processed to pipeline-quality natural gas and then sold to natural gas suppliers. For 12 of these projects, the gas is used at the landfill or delivered by pipeline to industrial customers as a direct substitute for fossil fuels in industrial processes.

We continue to invest in businesses and technologies that are designed to offer services and solutions ancillary or supplementary to our current operations. These investments include joint ventures, acquisitions and partial ownership interests. The solutions and services include the collection of project waste, including construction debris and household or yard waste, through our Bagster® program; the development, operation and marketing of plasma gasification facilities; operation of a landfill gas-to-liquid natural gas plant; and organic waste-to-fuel conversion technology. We also have expanded service offerings and solutions including fluorescent bulb and universal waste mail-back through our LampTracker® program; portable restroom servicing under the name Port-o-Let®; and street and parking lot sweeping services.

Competition

We encounter intense competition from governmental, quasi-governmental and private sources in all aspects of our operations. We principally compete with large national waste management companies, counties and municipalities that maintain their own waste collection and disposal operations and regional and local companies of varying sizes and financial resources. The industry also includes companies that specialize in certain discrete areas of waste management, operators of alternative disposal facilities, companies that seek to use parts of the waste stream as feedstock for renewable energy and other by-products, and waste brokers that rely upon haulers in local markets to address customer needs. In recent years, the industry has seen some additional consolidation, though the industry remains intensely competitive.

Operating costs, disposal costs and collection fees vary widely throughout the areas in which we operate. The prices that we charge are determined locally, and typically vary by volume and weight, type of waste collected, treatment requirements, risk of handling or disposal, frequency of collections, distance to final disposal sites, the availability of airspace within the geographic region, labor costs and amount and type of equipment furnished to the customer. We face intense competition in our Solid Waste business based on pricing and quality of service. We have also begun competing for business based on breadth of service offerings. As companies, individuals and communities look for ways to be more sustainable, we are promoting our comprehensive services that go beyond our core business of collecting and disposing of waste in order to meet their needs.

Seasonal Trends

Our operating revenues tend to be somewhat higher in summer months, primarily due to higher construction and demolition waste volumes. The volumes of industrial and residential waste in certain regions where we operate also tend to increase during the summer months. Our second and third quarter revenues and results of operations typically reflect these seasonal trends.

Service disruptions caused by severe storms, extended periods of inclement weather or climate extremes resulting from climate change can significantly affect the operating results of the Areas impacted. On the other hand, certain destructive weather and climate conditions, such as wildfires in the Western U.S. and hurricanes that most often impact our operations in the Southern and Eastern U.S. during the second half of the year, can increase our revenues in the Areas affected as a result of the waste volumes generated by these events. While weather-related and other event driven special projects can boost revenues through additional work for a limited time, due to significant start-up costs and other factors, such revenue can generate earnings at comparatively lower margins.

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Employees

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 44,900 full-time employees, of which approximately 8,600 were employed in administrative and sales positions and the balance in operations. Approximately 8,400 of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements.

Financial Assurance and Insurance Obligations

Financial Assurance

Municipal and governmental waste service contracts generally require contracting parties to demonstrate financial responsibility for their obligations under the contract. Financial assurance is also a requirement for (i) obtaining or retaining disposal site or transfer station operating permits; (ii) supporting certain variable-rate tax-exempt debt and (iii) estimated final capping, closure, post-closure and environmental remedial obligations at many of our landfills. We establish financial assurance using surety bonds, letters of credit, insurance policies, trust and escrow agreements and financial guarantees. The type of assurance used is based on several factors, most importantly: the jurisdiction, contractual requirements, market factors and availability of credit capacity.

Surety bonds and insurance policies are supported by (i) a diverse group of third-party surety and insurance companies; (ii) an entity in which we have a noncontrolling financial interest or (iii) a wholly-owned insurance captive, the sole business of which is to issue surety bonds and/or insurance policies on our behalf. Letters of credit generally are supported by our long-term U.S. and Canadian revolving credit facility (“$3.5 billion revolving credit facility”) and other credit facilities established for that purpose.

Insurance

We carry a broad range of insurance coverages, including health and welfare, general liability, automobile liability, workers’ compensation, real and personal property, directors’ and officers’ liability, pollution legal liability and other coverages we believe are customary to the industry. Our exposure to loss for insurance claims is generally limited to the per-incident deductible under the related insurance policy. We use a wholly-owned insurance captive to insure the deductibles for our general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims programs. As of December 31, 2019, both our commercial General Liability Insurance Policy and our workers’ compensation insurance program carried self-insurance exposures of up to $5 million per incident. As of December 31, 2019, our automobile liability insurance program included a per-incident deductible of up to $10 million. We do not expect the impact of any known casualty, property, environmental or other contingency to have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Our estimated insurance liabilities as of December 31, 2019 are summarized in Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Regulation

Our business is subject to extensive and evolving federal, state or provincial and local environmental, health, safety and transportation laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are administered by the EPA, Environment Canada, and various other federal, state, provincial and local environmental, zoning, transportation, land use, health and safety agencies in the U.S. and Canada. Many of these agencies regularly examine our operations to monitor compliance with these laws and regulations and have the power to enforce compliance, obtain injunctions or impose civil or criminal penalties in case of violations.

Because the primary mission of our business is to collect and manage solid waste in an environmentally sound manner, a significant amount of our capital expenditures is related, either directly or indirectly, to environmental protection measures, including compliance with federal, state, provincial and local rules. There are costs associated with siting, design, permitting, operations, monitoring, site maintenance, corrective actions, financial assurance, and facility closure and post-closure obligations. With acquisition, development or expansion of a waste management or disposal facility or transfer station, we must often spend considerable time, effort and money to obtain or maintain required permits and

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approvals. There are no assurances that we will be able to obtain or maintain required governmental approvals. Once obtained, operating permits are subject to renewal, modification, suspension or revocation by the issuing agency. Compliance with current regulations and future requirements could require us to make significant capital and operating expenditures. However, most of these expenditures are made in the normal course of business and do not place us at any competitive disadvantage.

The regulatory environment in which we operate is influenced by changes in leadership at the federal, state, provincial and local levels. The policies set forth under the current U.S. administration, for example, have included substantial changes to foreign trade policy and generally have been in favor of reducing regulation, including environmental regulation. We cannot predict what impact the current or future administrations will have on future regulations impacting our industry, especially given the number of rules currently in litigation, nor can we predict the timing of any such changes. Reduction of regulation may have a favorable impact on our operating costs, but the extensive environmental regulation applicable to landfills is a barrier to rapid entry that benefits our Company. Moreover, the risk reduction provided by stringent regulation is valuable to our customers and the communities we serve.

The primary U.S. federal statutes affecting our business are summarized below:

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (“RCRA”), as amended, regulates handling, transporting and disposing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste and delegates authority to states to develop programs to ensure the safe disposal of solid waste. Landfills are regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA, which sets forth minimum federal performance and design criteria for solid waste landfills, and Subtitle C of RCRA, which establishes a federal program to manage hazardous wastes from cradle to grave. These regulations are typically implemented by the states, although states can impose requirements that are more stringent than the federal standards. We incur costs in complying with these standards in the ordinary course of our operations.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA”), as amended, which is also known as Superfund, provides for federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment that have created actual or potential environmental hazards. CERCLA’s primary means for addressing such releases is to impose strict liability for cleanup of disposal sites upon current and former site owners and operators, generators of the hazardous substances at the site and transporters who selected the disposal site and transported substances thereto. Liability under CERCLA is not dependent on the intentional release of hazardous substances; it can be based upon the release or threatened release of hazardous substances, even resulting from lawful, unintentional and attentive action, as the term is defined by CERCLA and other applicable statutes and regulations. The EPA may issue orders requiring responsible parties to perform response actions at sites, or the EPA may seek recovery of funds expended or to be expended in the future at sites. Liability may include contribution for cleanup costs incurred by a defendant in a CERCLA civil action or by an entity that has previously resolved its liability to federal or state regulators in an administrative or judicially-approved settlement. Liability under CERCLA could also include obligations to a potentially responsible party (“PRP”) that voluntarily expends site clean-up costs. Further, liability for damage to publicly-owned natural resources may also be imposed. We are subject to potential liability under CERCLA as an owner or operator of facilities at which hazardous substances have been disposed and as a generator or transporter of hazardous substances disposed of at other locations.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended, known as the Clean Water Act, regulates the discharge of pollutants into streams, rivers, groundwater, or other surface waters from a variety of sources, including solid and hazardous waste disposal sites. If our operations discharge any pollutants into surface waters, the Clean Water Act requires us to apply for and obtain discharge permits, conduct sampling and monitoring, and, under certain circumstances, reduce the quantity of pollutants in those discharges. In 1990, the EPA issued additional standards for management of storm water run-off that require landfills and other waste-handling facilities to obtain storm water discharge permits. Also, if a landfill or other facility discharges wastewater through a sewage system to a publicly-owned treatment works, the facility must comply with discharge limits imposed by the treatment works. Further, before the development or expansion of a landfill can alter or affect “wetlands,” a permit may have to be obtained providing for mitigation or replacement wetlands. The Clean Water Act provides for civil, criminal and administrative penalties for violations of its provisions.

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The Clean Air Act of 1970, as amended, provides for federal, state and local regulation of the emission of air pollutants. Certain of our operations are subject to the requirements of the Clean Air Act, including large municipal solid waste landfills and landfill gas-to-energy facilities. In 1996, the EPA issued new source performance standards (“NSPS”) and emission guidelines (“EG”) controlling landfill gases from new and existing large landfills. In January 2003, the EPA issued Maximum Achievable Control Technology (“MACT”) standards for municipal solid waste landfills subject to the NSPS and EG. In August 2016, the EPA issued two new rules that serve to update the 1996 NSPS and EG regulatory requirements. These NSPS, EG and MACT regulations impose performance standards to minimize air emissions from large municipal solid waste landfills, subject most of these landfills to certain operating permit requirements under Title V of the Clean Air Act and, in many instances, require installation of landfill gas collection and control systems to control emissions or to treat and utilize landfill gas on- or off-site.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (“OSHA”), as amended, establishes certain employer responsibilities, including maintenance of a workplace free of recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious injury, compliance with standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and various reporting and record keeping obligations as well as disclosure and procedural requirements. Various standards for notices of hazards, safety in excavation and demolition work and the handling of asbestos, may apply to our operations. The Department of Transportation and OSHA, along with other federal agencies, have jurisdiction over certain aspects of hazardous materials and hazardous waste, including safety, movement and disposal. Various state and local agencies with jurisdiction over disposal of hazardous waste may seek to regulate movement of hazardous materials in areas not otherwise preempted by federal law.

We are also actively monitoring the following recent regulatory developments affecting our business:

With regard to regulatory developments under RCRA, the EPA published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking in December 2018 to consider whether to propose revisions to the municipal solid waste landfill criteria to support advances in liquids management. Although the notice does not reopen any existing regulations, we have been working closely with the EPA to ensure that the agency is aware of how future regulation could impact our industry. In July 2019, the EPA announced increases in the user fees accompanying the system that the agency uses to track hazardous waste shipments electronically. Later in 2019, the U.S. Department of Energy finalized a rule setting forth the fee that the agency will charge for the long-term storage and management of elemental mercury. Neither announcement is anticipated to adversely impact the Company’s hazardous business units, and we are working closely with both agencies to minimize risks more broadly to our industry.
With regard to regulatory requirements pertaining to greenhouse gas emissions, since 2014, decisions from the U.S Supreme Court and U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C Circuit, as well as EPA policy memoranda, have significantly narrowed the applicability and scope of EPA permitting requirements for GHGs from stationary sources, including with respect to biogenic carbon dioxide (“CO2”) permitting. In 2016, the EPA proposed revisions to the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (“PSD”) and Title V Greenhouse Gas (“GHG”) permitting regulations establishing a significant emissions rate (“SER”) threshold, below which sources would not be required to implement additional control technologies for their GHG emissions. This SER threshold should prevent most of our operational changes, such as landfill expansions and beneficial gas recovery projects, from being subject to PSD or Title V permit requirements due to our GHG emissions – assuming the EPA classifies biogenic CO2 emissions from municipal solid waste and landfill gas as carbon neutral. The EPA has not yet finalized this rulemaking. The EPA also has not yet finalized its policy for addressing biogenic CO2 emissions from waste management; however, the EPA’s independent Science Advisory Board has recommended it treat waste-derived CO2 emissions as carbon neutral. These judicial and regulatory actions have reduced, and are expected to continue to reduce, the potential impact of the PSD and Title V GHG Tailoring Rule on our air permits, compliance and operating requirements.

Potential climate change, GHG regulatory, and corporate sustainability initiatives have influenced our business strategy to provide low-carbon services to our customers, and we increasingly view our ability to offer lower carbon services as a key component of our business growth. We continue to anticipate the needs of our customers, which include investing in and developing ever-more-advanced recycling and reuse technologies. If the U.S. were

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to impose a carbon tax or other form of GHG regulation increasing demand for low-carbon service offerings in the future, the services we are developing will be increasingly valuable.

We continue to monitor periodic regulatory actions to increase the stringency of certain National Ambient Air Quality Standards (“NAAQS”) which could affect the cost, timeliness and availability of air permits for new and modified large municipal solid waste landfills and landfill gas-to-energy facilities. While we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of potential revisions to NAAQS, we do not believe that the such requirements will have a material adverse impact on our business as a whole.
In December 2014, the EPA issued a final rule regulating the disposal and beneficial use of coal combustion residuals (“CCR”). This codification of the CCR rule provides utilities with a stable regulatory regime and encourages beneficial use of CCR in encapsulated uses (e.g., used in cement or wallboard), and use according to established industry standards (e.g., application of sludge for agricultural enrichment). The EPA also deemed disposal and beneficial use of CCR at permitted municipal solid waste landfills exempt from the new regulations because the RCRA Subtitle D standards applicable at municipal solid waste landfills provide at least equivalent protection. These standards are consistent with our approach to handling CCR at our sites currently, and the new standards have provided a growth opportunity for the Company. States may impose standards more stringent than the federal program, and under the 2016 Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act, may receive approval to run permitting programs for CCR in their states. In 2018, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C Circuit vacated significant portions of the 2014 final rule and remanded the rule to the EPA for further revision. Between August and December of 2019, the EPA published three proposed rules aimed at providing utilities with some flexibility in closing or retrofitting unlined storage ponds and in regulating onsite storage of CCR for beneficial reuse. The Company will continue to monitor these rules to evaluate opportunities to provide CCR disposal services.
In May 2016, the EPA established lifetime health advisories for certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (“PFAS”), a group of man-made chemicals that have been manufactured and used globally since the 1940s in products such as textiles, fire suppressants, cookware, packaging and plastics. PFAS are typically very persistent in the environment and can be found in water, soil and air. Citing concerns about potential adverse human health effects from exposure to PFAS, the EPA announced its “PFAS Action Plan” in February 2019 and has taken various actions to address PFAS contamination. Meanwhile, an increasing number of states have enacted new drinking water, surface water and/or groundwater limits for various PFAS, which has led to a patchwork of PFAS standards across the U.S. The EPA has stated that it will increase its regulatory oversight of PFAS in 2020, with proposals anticipated that would establish drinking water standards, expanded authority for PFAS remediation, chemical release reporting obligations, and guidance on PFAS disposal. Compliance with new and proposed PFAS standards is anticipated to result in additional expense to the Company, but such standards are also anticipated to present potential business opportunities in the area of PFAS management, treatment and disposal.
In August 2016, the EPA published two rules to update the 1996 standards with new requirements for landfill gas control and monitoring at both new municipal solid waste landfills (constructed or modified after July 17, 2014) as well as existing landfills (operating after November 8, 1987, and not modified after July 17, 2014). Working with our trade associations and other landfill owners and operators, we identified significant legal, technical and implementation concerns with the rules and together filed a judicial appeal of the rules while also filing administrative petitions asking that the EPA stay the rules and initiate a rulemaking process. We also alerted the EPA that its August 2016 rulemakings led to an inconsistent regulatory structure in which six separate overlapping and inconsistent sets of work practices now govern the disposal industry. In May 2017, the EPA granted our industry’s administrative petitions for reconsideration and rulemaking, signaling its intent to reconsider its 2016 rulemakings. However, the agency continues to move forward with two additional rulemaking packages (a federal plan to implement the 2016 rule for existing landfills and revisions to the existing MACT rule) that could lead to further regulatory confusion. We cannot predict the outcome of any of these ongoing rulemaking processes; however, we do not believe any such regulatory changes will have a material adverse impact on our business as a whole.

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State, Provincial and Local Regulations

There are also various state or provincial and local regulations that affect our operations. Each state and province in which we operate has its own laws and regulations governing solid waste disposal, water and air pollution, and, in most cases, releases and cleanup of hazardous substances and liabilities for such matters. States and provinces have also adopted regulations governing the design, operation, maintenance and closure of landfills and transfer stations. Some counties, municipalities and other local governments have adopted similar laws and regulations. Our facilities and operations are likely to be subject to these types of requirements.

Our landfill operations are affected by the increasing preference for alternatives to landfill disposal. Many state and local governments mandate recycling and waste reduction at the source and prohibit the disposal of certain types of waste, such as yard waste, food waste and electronics at landfills. The number of state and local governments with recycling requirements and disposal bans continues to grow, while the logistics and economics of recycling the items remain challenging.

Various states have enacted, or are considering enacting, laws that restrict the disposal within the state of solid waste generated outside the state. While laws that overtly discriminate against out-of-state waste have been found to be unconstitutional, some laws that are less overtly discriminatory have been upheld in court. From time to time, the U.S. Congress has considered legislation authorizing states to adopt regulations, restrictions, or taxes on the importation of out-of-state or out-of-jurisdiction waste. Additionally, several state and local governments have enacted “flow control” regulations, which attempt to require that all waste generated within the state or local jurisdiction be deposited at specific sites. In 1994, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a flow control ordinance that gave preference to a local facility that was privately owned was unconstitutional, but in 2007, the Court ruled that an ordinance directing waste to a facility owned by the local government was constitutional. The U.S. Congress’ adoption of legislation allowing restrictions on interstate transportation of out-of-state or out-of-jurisdiction waste or certain types of flow control, or courts’ interpretations of interstate waste and flow control legislation, could adversely affect our solid and hazardous waste management services.

Additionally, regulations establishing extended producer responsibility (“EPR”) are being considered or implemented in many places around the world, including in the U.S. and Canada. EPR regulations are designed to place either partial or total responsibility on producers to fund the post-use life cycle of the products they create. Along with the funding responsibility, producers may be required to undertake additional responsibilities, such as taking over management of local recycling programs by taking back their products from end users or managing the collection operations and recycling processing infrastructure. There is no federal law establishing EPR in the U.S. or Canada; however, state, provincial and local governments could take, and in some cases have taken, steps to implement EPR regulations. If wide-ranging EPR regulations were adopted, they could have a fundamental impact on the waste, recycling and other streams we manage and how we operate our business, including contract terms and pricing.

Many states, provinces and local jurisdictions have enacted “fitness” laws that allow the agencies that have jurisdiction over waste services contracts or permits to deny or revoke these contracts or permits based on the applicant’s or permit holder’s compliance history. Some states, provinces and local jurisdictions go further and consider the compliance history of the parent, subsidiaries or affiliated companies, in addition to the applicant or permit holder. These laws authorize the agencies to make determinations of an applicant’s or permit holder’s fitness to be awarded a contract to operate, and to deny or revoke a contract or permit because of unfitness, unless there is a showing that the applicant or permit holder has been rehabilitated through the adoption of various operating policies and procedures put in place to assure future compliance with applicable laws and regulations. While fitness laws can present potential increased costs and barriers to entry into market areas, these laws have not, and are not expected to have a material adverse impact on our business as a whole.

Recycling; Foreign Import and Export Regulations and Material Restrictions

Enforcement or implementation of foreign and domestic regulations can affect our ability to export products. A significant portion of the fiber that we market has historically been shipped to export markets across the globe, particularly China. In recent years, the Chinese government has announced bans on certain materials and begun to enforce extremely

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restrictive quality and other requirements that have significantly reduced China’s import of recyclables. The Chinese government has also limited the flow of material into China by restricting the issuance of required import licenses, and the restriction on import licenses is expected to constrict further in 2020. In addition, changes to foreign trade policy and tariffs imposed by the current U.S. administration have resulted in China imposing new tariffs on the import of recyclables. It is currently anticipated that China will ban the import of recyclables completely in 2021. Many other markets, both domestic and foreign, have tightened their quality expectations and limited or restricted the import of certain recyclables as well.

Such trade restrictions and tariffs have disrupted the global trade of recyclables, particularly fiber, creating excess supply and decreasing recyclable commodity prices. The heightened quality requirements have been difficult for the industry to achieve and have driven up operating costs. In particular, single-stream MRFs process a wide range of commingled materials and tend to receive a higher percentage of non-recyclables, which results in increased processing and residual disposal costs to achieve quality standards. As recyclable commodity prices have fallen and operating costs have increased, recyclers are seeking to pass cost increases through to customers. The resulting price increase for recycling services in communities and at businesses in the U.S. has resulted in some customers reducing or eliminating their recycling service. Industry trade organizations and government agencies are engaged in discussions to mitigate long-term impacts to recycling programs and the industry as a whole.

For the past several years, we have been working with stakeholders to educate the public on the need to recycle properly. We are investing time and labor and working with customers to help improve quality and have seen improvement in the quality of material that we receive at our facilities. We have continued our focus on developing a sustainable recycling business model that meets customers’ environmental needs by passing through the increasing cost of processing and higher contamination rates, and these efforts had a positive impact on the operating results for our recycling business in 2019.

With a heightened awareness of the global problems caused by plastic waste in the environment, an increasing number of cities across the country have passed ordinances banning certain types of plastics from sale or use. Over 800 pieces of legislation, approximately 50% of which are bans on plastic bags, have been introduced in the U.S. regulating plastics: 660 passed, including 585 city ordinances. Others include bans on the sale or use of plastic straws, polystyrene plastic and single use packaging. These bans have increased pressure by manufacturers on our recycling facilities to accept a broader array of materials in curbside recycling programs to alleviate public pressures to ban the sale of those materials. However, with no viable end markets for recycling these materials, we and other recyclers are working to educate and remind customers of the need for end market demand and economic viability to support sustainable recycling programs. With increased focus on responsible management of plastics, we have taken a proactive approach to collaborate with buyers to ensure environmental sustainability goals are prioritized in managing the product we sell.

Regulation of Oil and Gas Exploration, Production and Disposal

Our EES organization provides specialized environmental management and disposal services for fluids used and wastes generated by customers engaged in oil and gas exploration and production, and these disposal services include use of underground injection wells. There is heightened federal regulatory focus on emissions of methane that occur during drilling and transportation of natural gas, as well as state attention to protective disposal of drilling residuals. There also remains heightened attention from the public, some states and the EPA to the alleged potential for hydraulic fracturing that occurs during drilling to impact drinking water supplies. Increased regulation of oil and gas exploration and production, including GHG emissions or hydraulic fracturing, could make it more difficult or cost-prohibitive for our EES customers to continue operations, adversely affecting our business.

Additionally, any new regulations regarding the treatment and disposal of wastes associated with exploration and production operations, including through use of injection wells, could increase our costs to provide oilfield services and reduce our margins and revenue from such services. Conversely, any loosening of regulations regarding how such wastes are handled or disposed of could adversely affect our business, as we believe the size, capital structure, regulatory sophistication and established reliability of our Company provide us with an advantage in providing services that must comply with any complex regulatory regime that may govern providing oilfield waste services.

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Investment in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure

We operate a large fleet of natural gas vehicles, and we plan to continue to invest in these assets for our collection fleet. As of December 31, 2019, we were operating 8,924 natural gas trucks and 145 natural gas fueling facilities; 25 of these fueling stations also serve the public, and in some cases our facilities serve the fleet of pre-approved third parties. Concerns have been raised about the potential for emissions from the fueling stations and infrastructure that serve natural gas-fueled vehicles. Additional regulation of, or restrictions on, natural gas fueling infrastructure or reductions in associated tax incentives could increase our operating costs. We are not yet able to evaluate potential operating changes or costs associated with such regulations, but we do not anticipate that such regulations would have a material adverse impact on our business.

There is increasing pressure to reduce the use of fossil fuel in the heavy-duty truck industry, and some cities and states are beginning to discuss requirements for using more advanced engine technology, such as electric powered vehicles, rather than natural gas or diesel vehicles. Although current options for heavy-duty electric vehicles lack sufficient range and proven experience for our operations, requirements to transition to electric powered vehicles could increase our cost of vehicles and impair our investment in our natural gas fleet and infrastructure.

Renewable Fuel Production

We have invested, and continue to invest, in facilities to capture and treat renewable natural gas (“RNG”) from the Company’s landfills, and RNG from landfill biogas is a significant source of fuel for our natural gas collection vehicles. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorize the Renewable Fuels Standards (“RFS”) program that promotes the production and use of renewable transportation fuels. The Company is an EPA-registered producer of transportation fuel making compressed and liquefied RNG from landfill biogas, which qualifies as a cellulosic biofuel under the RFS program. Oil refiners and importers are required through the RFS program to blend specified volumes of various categories of renewable transportation fuels with gasoline or buy credits, referred to as renewable identification numbers (“RINs”), from renewable fuel producers. The market value for RINs is tied to renewable fuel volumes set by the EPA annually, and the final 2020 required volumes for cellulosic biofuel are 41% higher than in 2019. The EPA also is poised to initiate a rulemaking this year that would set required volume requirements for a three-year period from 2020 through 2022.

Federal, State and Local Climate Change Initiatives; Sustainability

In light of regulatory and business developments related to concerns about climate change, we have identified a strategic business opportunity to provide our public and private sector customers with sustainable solutions to reduce their GHG emissions. As part of our on-going marketing evaluations, we assess customer demand for and opportunities to develop waste services offering verifiable carbon reductions, such as waste reduction, increased recycling, and conversion of landfill gas and discarded materials into electricity and fuel. We use carbon life cycle tools in evaluating potential new services and in establishing the value proposition that makes us attractive as an environmental service provider. We are active in support of public policies that encourage development and use of lower carbon energy and waste services that lower users’ carbon footprints. We understand the importance of broad stakeholder engagement in these endeavors, and actively seek opportunities for public policy discussion on more sustainable materials management practices. In addition, we work with stakeholders at the federal and state level in support of legislation that encourages production and use of renewable, low-carbon fuels and electricity. Despite the announcement that the U.S. has begun its formal withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accords, we have seen no reduction in customer demand for services aligned with their GHG reduction goals and strategies.

We continue to assess the physical risks to company operations from the effects of severe weather events and use risk mitigation planning to increase our resiliency in the face of such events. We are investing in infrastructure to withstand more severe storm events, which may afford us a competitive advantage and reinforce our reputation as a reliable service provider through continued service in the aftermath of such events.

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Consistent with our Company’s long-standing commitment to corporate sustainability and environmental stewardship, we have published our 2019 Sustainability Report, which is an update to our full length 2018 Sustainability Report, “Driving Change,” which details the GHG emissions reductions we have facilitated to date and our determination to expand these reductions in the future, as well as our commitment to help make the communities in which we live and work safe, resilient and sustainable. The information in this report can be found at our Company website but does not constitute a part of this Form 10-K. The Company actively participates in a number of sustainability reporting programs and frameworks, including the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices, where we are “Sector Leader” for Commercial Services, the CDP, where we are among “A List” companies, and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board, on which we serve as a member of the Board’s advisory group.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

In an effort to keep our stockholders and the public informed about our business, we may make “forward-looking statements.” Forward-looking statements are often identified by the words, “will,” “may,” “should,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “plan,” “forecast,” “project,” “estimate,” “intend” and words of a similar nature and generally include statements regarding:

future results of operations, including revenues, earnings or cash flows;
plans and objectives for the future;
projections, estimates or assumptions relating to our operational or financial performance; or
our opinions, views or beliefs about the effects of current or future events, circumstances or performance.

You should view these statements with caution. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, circumstances or events. They are based on facts and circumstances known to us as of the date the statements are made. All aspects of our business are subject to uncertainties, risks and other influences, many of which we do not control. Any of these factors, either alone or taken together, could have a material adverse effect on us and could change whether any forward-looking statement ultimately turns out to be true. Additionally, we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statement as a result of future events, circumstances or developments. The following discussion should be read together with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto. Outlined below are some of the risks that we believe could affect our business and financial statements for 2020 and beyond and could cause actual results to be materially different from those that may be set forth in forward-looking statements made by the Company.

The waste industry is highly competitive, and if we cannot successfully compete in the marketplace, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.

We encounter intense competition from governmental, quasi-governmental and private sources in all aspects of our operations. We principally compete with large national waste management companies, counties and municipalities that maintain their own waste collection and disposal operations and regional and local companies of varying sizes and financial resources. The industry also includes companies that specialize in certain discrete areas of waste management, operators of alternative disposal facilities, companies that seek to use parts of the waste stream as feedstock for renewable energy and other by-products, and waste brokers that rely upon haulers in local markets to address customer needs. In recent years, the industry has seen some additional consolidation, though the industry remains intensely competitive. Counties and municipalities may have financial competitive advantages because tax revenues are available to them and tax-exempt financing is more readily available to them. Also, such governmental units may attempt to impose flow control or other restrictions that would give them a competitive advantage. In addition, some of our competitors may have lower financial expectations, allowing them to reduce their prices to expand sales volume or to win competitively-bid contracts, including large national accounts and exclusive franchise arrangements with municipalities. When this happens, we may lose customers and be unable to execute our pricing strategy, resulting in a negative impact to our revenue growth from yield on base business.

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If we fail to implement our business strategy, our financial performance and our growth could be materially and adversely affected.

Our future financial performance and success are dependent in large part upon our ability to implement our business strategy successfully. Implementation of our strategy will require effective management of our operational, financial and human resources and will place significant demands on those resources. See Item 1. Business for more information on our business strategy.

There are risks involved in pursuing our strategy, including the following:

Our employees, customers or investors may not embrace and support our strategy.
We may not be able to hire or retain the personnel necessary to manage our strategy effectively.
A key element of our strategy is yield management through focus on price leadership, which has presented challenges to keep existing business and win new business at reasonable returns. We have also continued our environmental fee, fuel surcharge and regulatory recovery fee to offset costs. The loss of volumes as a result of price increases and our unwillingness to pursue lower margin volumes may negatively affect our cash flows or results of operations. Additionally, we have in the past and may in the future face purported class action lawsuits related to our customer service agreements, prices and fees.
We may be unsuccessful in implementing improvements to operational efficiency and such efforts may not yield the intended result.
We may not be able to maintain cost savings achieved through optimization efforts.
Strategic decisions with respect to our asset portfolio may result in impairments to our assets. See Item 1A. Risk Factors — We may record material charges against our earnings due to impairments to our assets.
Our ability to make strategic acquisitions depends on our ability to identify desirable acquisition targets, negotiate advantageous transactions despite competition for such opportunities, fund such acquisitions on favorable terms, obtain regulatory approvals and realize the benefits we expect from those transactions.
Acquisitions, investments and/or new service offerings may not increase our earnings in the timeframe anticipated, or at all, due to difficulties operating in new markets or providing new service offerings, failure of emerging technologies to perform as expected, failure to operate within budget, integration issues, or regulatory issues, among others.
Integration of acquisitions and/or new services offerings could increase our exposure to the risk of inadvertent noncompliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Liabilities associated with acquisitions, including ones that may exist only because of past operations of an acquired business, may prove to be more difficult or costly to address than anticipated.
Execution of our strategy, particularly growth through acquisitions, may cause us to incur substantial additional indebtedness, which may divert capital away from our traditional business operations and other financial plans.
We continue to seek to divest underperforming and non-strategic assets if we cannot improve their profitability. We may not be able to successfully negotiate the divestiture of underperforming and non-strategic operations, which could result in asset impairments or the continued operation of low-margin businesses.

In addition to the risks set forth above, implementation of our business strategy could also be affected by other factors beyond our control, such as increased competition, legal developments, government regulation, general economic conditions, increased operating costs or expenses, subcontractor costs and availability and changes in industry trends. We may decide to alter or discontinue certain aspects of our business strategy at any time. If we are not able to implement our business strategy successfully, our long-term growth and profitability may be adversely affected. Even if we are able to implement some or all of the initiatives of our business strategy successfully, our operating results may not improve to the extent we anticipate, or at all.

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Our planned acquisition of Advanced Disposal Services, Inc. (“Advanced Disposal”) may not occur at all, may not occur in the expected time frame or may involve the divestiture of certain businesses and assets, which may negatively affect the trading price of our common stock and our future business and financial results.

On April 14, 2019, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger pursuant to which, among other things and subject to the satisfaction or waiver of specified conditions, we agreed to acquire Advanced Disposal. If the acquisition is completed, Advanced Disposal will become an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of WM. The consummation of the acquisition is not assured and is subject to certain conditions, including the expiration or termination of any waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder and the absence of any law or order restraining, enjoining or otherwise prohibiting the acquisition, as well as other customary closing conditions.

The planned acquisition of Advanced Disposal is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including general economic and capital markets conditions; the effects that the pending merger may have on us, Advanced Disposal and our respective businesses; inability to obtain required regulatory or government approvals or to obtain such approvals on satisfactory conditions; inability of Advanced Disposal to satisfy other closing conditions; the occurrence of any event, change or other circumstance that could give rise to the termination of the Agreement and Plan of Merger, several of which could require us to pay a termination fee of $150 million to Advanced Disposal; legal proceedings that may be instituted related to the proposed acquisition and the legal expenses and diversion of management’s attention that may be associated therewith; and unexpected costs, charges or expenses. If the planned acquisition of Advanced Disposal is not completed, if there are significant delays in completing the planned acquisition or if the planned acquisition involves an unexpected amount of required divestitures, it could negatively affect the trading price of our common stock and our future business and financial results.

Additionally, in May 2019, we issued senior notes with an aggregate principal amount of $3 billion that include a special mandatory redemption feature. This feature provides that if the acquisition of Advanced Disposal is not completed on or prior to July 14, 2020, or if, prior to such date, the Agreement and Plan of Merger is terminated for any reason, we will be required to redeem all of such outstanding notes equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amounts of such notes, plus accrued but unpaid interest. Our ability to pay the redemption price may be limited by our financial resources at the time and the terms of our debt instruments and other instruments and agreements. We may also be required to incur additional indebtedness and reduce availability under our $3.5 billion revolving credit facility to fund the redemption price. Any failure to pay the special mandatory redemption price of such notes when due would constitute an event of default with respect to the notes of such series and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and the market prices of our securities. Further, if we redeem such series of notes pursuant to the special mandatory redemption feature, our investors may be dissatisfied that they did not obtain the return that they expected on their investment in those notes.

We may not realize the strategic benefits and cost synergies that are anticipated from the planned acquisition of Advanced Disposal.

The benefits that are expected to result from the planned acquisition of Advanced Disposal will depend, in part, on our ability to realize anticipated cost synergies. Our success in realizing these benefits and cost synergies, and the timing of this realization, depends on the successful integration of Advanced Disposal. There is a significant degree of difficulty and management distraction inherent in the process of integrating an acquisition of this size. The process of integrating operations could cause business interruption and distraction. Some members of our management may be required to devote considerable time to this integration process, which will decrease the time they will have to manage our Company, service existing customers, attract new customers and develop new products or strategies. If management is not able to effectively manage the integration process, or if any significant business activities are interrupted as a result of the integration process, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.

The acquisition of Advanced Disposal may not result in realization of the benefits and cost synergies that we currently expect, and we cannot guarantee that these benefits and cost synergies will be achieved within anticipated time frames or at all. Additionally, we may incur substantial expenses in connection with the integration of Advanced Disposal, which may exceed expectations and offset certain benefits.

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Compliance with existing or increased future regulations and/or enforcement of such regulations can restrict or change our operations, increase our operating costs or require us to make additional capital expenditures, and a decrease in regulation may lower barriers to entry for our competitors.

Stringent government regulations at the federal, state, provincial and local level in the U.S. and Canada have a substantial impact on our business, and compliance with such regulations is costly. Many complex laws, rules, orders and interpretations govern environmental protection, health, safety, land use, zoning, transportation and related matters. Among other things, governmental regulations and enforcement actions restrict our operations at times and may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows by imposing conditions such as:

limitations on siting and constructing new waste disposal, transfer, recycling or processing facilities or on expanding existing facilities;
limitations, regulations or levies on collection and disposal prices, rates and volumes;
limitations or bans on disposal or transportation of out-of-state waste or certain categories of waste;
mandates regarding the management of solid waste, including requirements to recycle, divert or otherwise process certain waste, recycling and other streams; or
limitations or restrictions on the recycling, processing or transformation of waste, recycling and other streams.

Regulations affecting the siting, design and closure of landfills require us, at times, to undertake investigatory or remedial activities, curtail operations or close landfills temporarily or permanently. We have significant financial obligations relating to final capping, closure, post-closure and environmental remediation at our existing landfills and we establish accruals for these estimated costs. Expenditures could be accelerated or materially exceed our accruals due to the types of waste collected and manner in which it is transported and disposed of, including actions taken in the past by companies we have acquired or third-party landfill operators; environmental regulatory changes; new information about waste types previously collected, such as PFAS or other emerging contaminates, and other reasons.

In order to develop, expand or operate a landfill or other waste management facility, we must have various facility permits and other governmental approvals, including those relating to zoning, environmental protection and land use. The permits and approvals are often difficult, time consuming and costly to obtain and sometimes contain conditions that limit our operations.

Various states have enacted, or are considering enacting, laws that restrict the disposal within the state of solid waste generated outside the state. From time to time, the U.S. Congress has considered legislation authorizing states to adopt regulations, restrictions, or taxes on the importation of out-of-state or out-of-jurisdiction waste. Additionally, several state and local governments have enacted “flow control” regulations, which attempt to require that all waste generated within the state or local jurisdiction be deposited at specific sites. The U.S. Congress’ adoption of legislation allowing restrictions on interstate transportation of out-of-state or out-of-jurisdiction waste certain types of flow control, or courts’ interpretations of interstate waste and flow control legislation, could adversely affect our solid and hazardous waste management services.

Additionally, regulations establishing extended producer responsibility (“EPR”) are being considered or implemented in many places around the world, including in the U.S. and Canada. EPR regulations are designed to place either partial or total responsibility on producers to fund the post-use life cycle of the products they create. Along with the funding responsibility, producers may be required to undertake additional responsibilities, such as taking over management of local recycling programs by taking back their products from end users or managing the collection operations and recycling processing infrastructure. There is no federal law establishing EPR in the U.S. or Canada; however, state, provincial and local governments could, and in some cases have, taken steps to implement EPR regulations. If wide-ranging EPR regulations were adopted, they could have a fundamental impact on the waste streams we manage and how we operate our business, including contract terms and pricing. A significant reduction in the waste, recycling and other streams we manage could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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The regulatory environment in which we operate is influenced by changes in leadership at the federal, state, provincial and local levels. The policies set forth under the current U.S. administration, for example, have included substantial changes to foreign trade policy and generally have been in favor of reducing regulation, including environmental regulation. We cannot predict what impact the current administration will have on future regulations impacting our industry, especially given the number of rules currently in litigation, nor can we predict the timing of any such changes. Reduction of regulation may have a favorable impact on our operating costs, but the extensive environmental regulation governing landfills is a substantial barrier to entry that benefits our Company. Moreover, the risk reduction provided by stringent regulation is valuable to our customers and the communities we serve. It is likely that some policies adopted by the current administration will benefit us and others will negatively affect us.

Our revenues, earnings and cash flows will fluctuate based on changes in commodity prices, and commodity prices for recyclable materials are particularly susceptible to volatility based on regulations and tariffs that affect our ability to export products.

Enforcement or implementation of foreign and domestic regulations can affect our ability to export products. A significant portion of the fiber that we market has historically been shipped to export markets across the globe, particularly China. In recent years, the Chinese government announced bans on certain materials and begun to enforce extremely restrictive quality and other requirements that have significantly reduced China’s import of recyclables. The Chinese government has also limited the flow of material into China by restricting the issuance of required import licenses and the restriction on import licenses is expected to constrict further in 2020. In addition, changes to foreign trade policy and tariffs imposed by the current U.S. administration have resulted in China imposing new tariffs on the import of recyclables. We anticipate China will ban the import of recyclables completely in 2021. Many other markets, both domestic and foreign, have tightened their quality expectations and limited or restricted the import of certain recyclables as well.

Such trade restrictions and tariffs have disrupted the global trade of recyclables, particularly fiber, creating excess supply and decreasing recyclable commodity prices. We have been actively working to identify alternative markets for recycling commodities, but there may not be demand for all of the material we produce. The heightened quality requirements have been difficult for the industry to achieve and have driven up operating costs. In particular, single-stream MRFs process a wide range of commingled materials and tend to receive a higher percentage of non-recyclables, which results in increased processing and residual disposal costs to achieve quality standards. As recyclable commodity prices have fallen and operating costs have increased, we and other recyclers are seeking to pass cost increases through to customers. The resulting price increase for recycling services in communities and at businesses in the U.S. has resulted in some customers reducing or eliminating their recycling service.

Reductions in market prices for recycling commodities, and reduction in demand for recycling commodities and recycling services, have negatively impacted our operating income and cash flows in 2018 and 2019. The decline in market prices in 2019 and 2018 for recycling commodities resulted in a decrease in revenue of $248 million and $273 million, respectively. As we have increased the size of our recycling operations, we have also increased our exposure to commodity price fluctuations. Additionally, future regulation, tariffs or initiatives may result in further reduced demand or increased operating costs, which would cause the profitability of our recycling operations to decline.

Fluctuation in energy prices also affects our business, including recycling of plastics manufactured from petroleum products. Significant variations in the price of methane gas, electricity and other energy-related products that are marketed and sold by our landfill gas recovery operations can result in a corresponding significant impact to our revenue from yield from such operations. Additionally, we provide specialized disposal services for oil and gas exploration and production operations through our EES organization. Demand for these services decreases when drilling activity slows due to depressed oil and gas prices, such as the low prices throughout the last few years. Any of the commodity prices to which we are subject may fluctuate substantially and without notice in the future.

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Changes in regulations applicable to oil and gas exploration, production and disposal could adversely affect our EES organization.

Our EES organization provides specialized environmental management and disposal services for fluids used and wastes generated by customers engaged in oil and gas exploration and production, and these disposal services include the use of underground injection wells. Demand for these services is adversely affected if drilling activity slows due to regulation and industry conditions beyond our control, in addition to changes in oil and gas prices. There is heightened federal regulatory focus on emissions of methane that occur during drilling and transportation, as well as state attention to protective disposal of drilling residuals. There also remains heightened attention from the public, some states and the EPA to the alleged potential for hydraulic fracturing that occurs during drilling to impact drinking water supplies. Increased regulation of oil and gas exploration and production, including GHG emissions or hydraulic fracturing, could make it more difficult or cost-prohibitive for our EES customers to continue operations, adversely affecting our business.

Additionally, any new regulations regarding the treatment and disposal of wastes associated with exploration and production operations, including through the use of injection wells, could increase our costs to provide oilfield services and reduce our margins and revenue from such services. Conversely, any loosening of regulations regarding how such wastes are handled or disposed of could adversely impact demand for our EES services.

Changes to the regulatory framework related to renewable fuel standards could affect our financial performance in that sector as a renewable fuel producer.

The Company acts as a renewable fuel producer in the RFS program enacted by Congress under the Energy Policy Act and Energy Independence and Security Act. Oil refiners and importers are required through the RFS program to blend specified volumes of renewable transportation fuels with gasoline or buy credits, referred to as RINs, from renewable fuel producers. The Company has invested, and continues to invest, in facilities that capture and convert landfill gas into renewable natural gas so that we can participate in the program. The value of the RINs associated with our landfill gas is set through a market established by the program. The EPA finalized a rule in December 2019 increasing refiners’ obligations to purchase renewable natural gas and other cellulosic biofuels under the RFS program for compliance year 2020. Unlike in prior years, however, market uncertainty stemming from the EPA’s administration of the RFS program led to a rapid decline in RIN values. We continue to advocate for the EPA to implement policies that ensure long-term stability for renewable transportation fuels as changes in the RFS market or the structure of the RFS program can and has reduced the value of renewable natural gas RINs and negatively impacted the financial performance of the facilities constructed to capture and treat the gas.

Increasing customer preference for alternatives to landfill disposal and bans on certain types of waste could reduce our landfill volumes and cause our revenues and operating results to decline.

Our customers are increasingly diverting waste to alternatives to landfill disposal, such as recycling and composting, while also working to reduce the amount of waste they generate. In addition, many state and local governments mandate diversion, recycling and waste reduction at the source and prohibit the disposal of certain types of waste, such as yard waste, food waste and electronics at landfills. Where such organic waste is not banned from the landfill, some large customers such as grocery stores and restaurants are choosing to divert their organic waste from landfills. Zero-waste goals (sending no waste to the landfill) have been set by many of North America’s largest companies. Although such mandates and initiatives help to protect our environment, these developments reduce the volume of waste going to our landfills which may affect the prices that we can charge for landfill disposal. Our landfills currently provide our highest income from operations margins. If we are not successful in expanding our service offerings, growing lines of businesses to service waste streams that do not go to landfills providing services for customers that wish to reduce waste entirely, then our revenues and operating results may decline. Additionally, despite the development of new service offerings and lines of business, it is possible that our revenues and our income from operations margins could be negatively affected due to disposal alternatives.

With a heightened awareness of the global problems caused by plastic waste in the environment, an increasing number of cities across the country have passed ordinances banning certain types of plastics from sale or use. Over 800 pieces of

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legislation, approximately 50% of which are bans on plastic bags, have been introduced in the U.S. regulating plastics; 660 passed, including 585 city ordinances. Others include bans on the sale or use of plastic straws, polystyrene plastic and single use packaging. These bans have increased pressure by manufacturers on our recycling facilities to accept a broader array of materials in curbside recycling programs to alleviate public pressures to ban the sale of those materials. However, there are currently no viable end markets for recycling these materials and inclusion of such materials in our recycling stream increases contamination and operating costs and can negatively affect the results of our recycling operations.

Developments in technology could trigger a fundamental change in the waste management industry, as waste streams are increasingly viewed as a resource, which may adversely impact volumes at our landfills and our profitability.

Our Company and others have recognized the value of the traditional waste stream as a potential resource. Research and development activities are on-going to provide disposal alternatives that maximize the value of waste, including using waste as a source for renewable energy and other valuable by-products. We and many other companies are investing in these technologies. It is possible that such investments and technological advancements may reduce the cost of waste disposal or the value of landfill gas recovery to a level below our costs and may reduce the demand for landfill space. As a result, our revenues and margins could be adversely affected due to advancements in disposal alternatives.

If we are not able to develop new service offerings and protect intellectual property or if a competitor develops or obtains exclusive rights to a breakthrough technology, our financial results may suffer.

Our existing and proposed service offerings to customers require that we invest in, develop or license, and protect new technologies. Research and development of new technologies and investment in emerging technologies often requires significant spending that may divert capital investment away from our traditional business operations. We may experience difficulties or delays in the research, development, production and/or marketing of new products and services or emerging technologies in which we have invested, which may negatively impact our operating results and prevent us from recouping or realizing a return on the investments required to bring new products and services to market. Further, protecting our intellectual property rights and combating unlicensed copying and use of intellectual property is difficult, and any inability to obtain or protect new technologies could impact our services to customers and development of new revenue sources. Our Company and others are increasingly focusing on new technologies that innovate our operations, improve the customer experience and provide alternatives to traditional disposal and maximize the resource value of waste. If a competitor develops or obtains exclusive rights to a “breakthrough technology” that provides a revolutionary change in traditional waste management, or if we have inferior intellectual property to our competitors, our financial results may suffer.

Our business depends on our reputation and the value of our brand.

We believe we have developed a reputation for high-quality service, reliability and social and environmental responsibility, and we believe our brand symbolizes these attributes. The Waste Management brand name, trademarks and logos and our reputation are powerful sales and marketing tools, and we devote significant resources to promoting and protecting them. Adverse publicity, whether or not justified, relating to activities by our operations, employees or agents could tarnish our reputation and reduce the value of our brand. Damage to our reputation and loss of brand equity could reduce demand for our services. This reduction in demand, together with the dedication of time and expense necessary to defend our reputation, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations, as well as require additional resources to rebuild our reputation and restore the value of our brand.

Our operations are subject to environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations that may result in significant liabilities.

There is risk of incurring significant environmental liabilities in the use, treatment, storage, transfer and disposal of waste materials. Under applicable environmental laws and regulations, we could be liable if it is alleged that our operations cause environmental damage to our properties or to the property of other landowners, particularly as a result of the contamination of air, drinking water or soil. Under current law, we could also be held liable for damage caused by conditions that existed before we acquired the assets or operations involved and for conditions resulting from waste types or compounds previously considered non-hazardous but later determined to present possible threat to public health or the

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environment. The risks of successor liability and emerging contaminants are of particular concern as we execute our growth strategy, partially though acquisitions, because we may be unsuccessful in identifying and assessing potential liabilities during our due diligence investigations. Further, the counterparties in such transactions may be unable to perform their indemnification obligations owed to us. Any substantial liability for environmental damage could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In the ordinary course of our business, we have in the past, we are currently, and we may in the future, become involved in legal and administrative proceedings relating to land use and environmental laws and regulations. These include proceedings in which:

agencies of federal, state, local or foreign governments seek to impose liability on us under applicable statutes, sometimes involving civil or criminal penalties for violations, or to revoke or deny renewal of a permit we need; and
local communities, citizen groups, landowners or governmental agencies oppose the issuance of a permit or approval we need, allege violations of the permits under which we operate or laws or regulations to which we are subject, or seek to impose liability on us for environmental damage.

We generally seek to work with the authorities or other persons involved in these proceedings to resolve any issues raised. If we are not successful, the adverse outcome of one or more of these proceedings could result in, among other things, material increases in our costs or liabilities as well as material charges for asset impairments.

Further, we often enter into agreements with landowners imposing obligations on us to meet certain regulatory or contractual conditions upon site closure or upon termination of the agreements. Compliance with these agreements inherently involves subjective determinations and may result in disputes, including litigation. Costs to remediate or restore the condition of closed sites may be significant.

General economic conditions can directly and adversely affect our revenues and our income from operations margins.

Our business is directly affected by changes in national and general economic factors that are outside of our control, including consumer confidence, interest rates and access to capital markets. A weak economy generally results in decreased consumer spending and decreases in volumes of waste generated, which negatively impacts the ability to grow through new business or service upgrades, and may result in customer turnover and reduction in customers’ waste service needs. Consumer uncertainty and the loss of consumer confidence may also reduce the number and variety of services requested by customers. Additionally, a weak market for consumer goods can significantly decrease demand by paper mills for recycled corrugated cardboard used in packaging; such decrease in demand can negatively impact commodity prices and our operating income and cash flows.

A decrease in waste volumes generated results in an increase in competitive pricing pressure; such economic conditions may also interfere with our ability to implement our pricing strategy. Many of our contracts have price adjustment provisions that are tied to an index such as the Consumer Price Index, and our costs may increase more than the increase, if any, in the Consumer Price Index. This is partially due to our relatively high fixed-cost structure, which is difficult to quickly adjust to match shifting volume levels and vendor costs, and may not correlate with the Consumer Price Index or the waste industry.

Weakness in the economy may expose us to credit risk of governmental entities and municipalities and other major customers, which could negatively impact our operating results.

We provide service to a number of governmental entities, municipalities, and large national accounts. During periods of economic weakness, governmental entities and municipalities can suffer significant financial difficulties, due in part to reduced tax revenue and/or high cost structures. During these periods, such entities, and our non-governmental customers, could be unable to pay amounts owed to us or renew contracts with us at previous or increased rates.

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Purchasers of our recycling commodities can be particularly vulnerable to financial difficulties in times of commodity price volatility. The inability of our customers to pay us in a timely manner or to pay increased rates, particularly large national accounts, could negatively affect our operating results.

In addition, the financial difficulties of municipalities could result in a decline in investors’ demand for municipal bonds and a correlating increase in interest rates. As of December 31, 2019, we had $669 million of tax-exempt bonds with term interest rate periods that expire within the next 12 months and $355 million of variable-rate tax-exempt bonds with interest rates reset on either a daily or a weekly basis. If market dynamics resulted in repricing of our tax-exempt bonds at significantly higher interest rates, we would incur increased interest expenses that may negatively affect our operating results and cash flows.

We may be unable to obtain or maintain required permits or expand existing permitted capacity of our landfills, which could decrease our revenue and increase our costs.

Our ability to meet our financial and operating objectives depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain the permits necessary to operate landfill sites. Permits to build, operate and expand solid waste management facilities, including landfills and transfer stations, have become more difficult and expensive to obtain and maintain. Permits often take years to obtain as a result of numerous hearings and compliance requirements with regard to zoning, environmental and other regulations. These permits are also often subject to resistance from citizen or other groups and other political pressures. Local communities and citizen groups, adjacent landowners or governmental agencies may oppose the issuance of a permit or approval we may need, allege violations of the permits under which we currently operate or laws or regulations to which we are subjected, or seek to impose liability on us for environmental damage. Responding to these challenges has, at times, increased our costs and extended the time associated with establishing new facilities and expanding existing facilities. In addition, failure to receive regulatory and zoning approval may prohibit us from establishing new facilities or expanding existing facilities. Our failure to obtain the required permits to operate our landfills could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Significant shortages in diesel fuel supply or increases in diesel fuel prices will increase our operating expenses.

The price and supply of diesel fuel can fluctuate significantly based on international, political and economic circumstances, as well as other factors outside our control, such as actions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and other oil and gas producers, regional production patterns, weather conditions and environmental concerns. We need diesel fuel to run a significant portion of our collection and transfer trucks and our equipment used in our landfill operations. Supply shortages could substantially increase our operating expenses. Additionally, if fuel prices increase, our direct operating expenses increase and many of our vendors raise their prices to offset their own rising costs. We have in place a fuel surcharge program, designed to offset increased fuel expenses; however, we may not be able to pass through all of our increased costs and some customers’ contracts prohibit any pass-through of the increased costs. Additionally, lawsuits have challenged our fuel and environmental charges included on our invoices. Regardless of any offsetting surcharge programs, increased operating costs due to higher diesel fuel prices will decrease our income from operations margins.

We have made significant investments in an extensive natural gas truck fleet, which makes us partially dependent on the availability of natural gas and fueling infrastructure and vulnerable to natural gas prices, and requirements to transition to other vehicle types could impair these investments.

We operate a large fleet of natural gas vehicles, and we plan to continue to invest in these assets for our collection fleet. However, natural gas fueling infrastructure is not yet broadly available in North America; as a result, we have constructed and operate natural gas fueling stations, some of which also serve the public or pre-approved third parties. It will remain necessary for us to invest capital in fueling infrastructure in order to power our natural gas fleet. Concerns have been raised about the potential for emissions from fueling infrastructure that serve natural gas-fueled vehicles. New regulation of, or restrictions on, natural gas fueling infrastructure or reductions in associated tax incentives could increase our operating costs. Additionally, fluctuations in the price and supply of natural gas could substantially increase our operating expenses; a reduction in the existing cost differential between natural gas and diesel fuel could materially reduce

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the benefits we anticipate from our investment in natural gas vehicles. Further, our fuel surcharge program is currently indexed to diesel fuel prices, and price fluctuations for natural gas may not effectively be recovered by this program.

There is increasing pressure to reduce the use of fossil fuel in the heavy-duty truck industry, and some cities and states are beginning to discuss requirements for using more advanced engine technology, such as electric powered vehicles, rather than natural gas or diesel vehicles. Although current options for heavy-duty electric vehicles lack sufficient range and proven experience for our operations, requirements to transition to electric powered vehicles could increase our cost of vehicles and impair our investment in our natural gas fleet and infrastructure

We are increasingly dependent on technology in our operations and if our technology fails, our business could be adversely affected.

We may experience problems with the operation of our current information technology systems or the technology systems of third parties on which we rely, as well as the development and deployment of new information technology systems, that could adversely affect, or even temporarily disrupt, all or a portion of our operations until resolved. Inabilities and delays in implementing new systems can also affect our ability to realize projected or expected cost savings. Additionally, any systems failures could impede our ability to timely collect and report financial results in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.

We are implementing a new enterprise resource planning system, and challenges with the implementation of the system may impact our business and operations.

We are in the process of a complex, multi-year implementation of a new enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system. The ERP system implementation requires the integration of the new ERP system with multiple new and existing information systems and business processes and is designed to accurately maintain our books and records and provide information to our management team important to the operation of the business. Such an implementation is a major undertaking from a financial, management, and personnel perspective. The implementation of the ERP system may prove to be more difficult, costly, or time consuming than expected, and it is possible that the system will not yield the benefits anticipated. Any disruptions, delays or deficiencies in the design and implementation of our new ERP system could adversely affect our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations, resulting in negative impacts on our business and operations and subject us to potential liability. Additionally, our implementation of the ERP system involves greater utilization of third-party “cloud” computing services in connection with our business operations. Problems faced by us or our third-party providers, including technological or business-related disruptions, as well as cybersecurity threats, could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition for future periods.

A cybersecurity incident could negatively impact our business and our relationships with customers and expose us to increased liability.

Substantially all aspects of our business operations rely on digital technology. We use computers, mobile devices, social networking and other online platforms to connect with our employees and our customers. These uses give rise to cybersecurity risks, including security breach, espionage, system disruption, theft and inadvertent release of information. Our business involves the storage and transmission of numerous classes of sensitive and/or confidential information and intellectual property, including customers’ personal information, private information about employees, and financial and strategic information about the Company and its business partners. We also rely on a Payment Card Industry compliant third party to protect our customers’ credit card information.

We are regularly the target of attempted cyber intrusions, and we must commit substantial resources to continuously monitor and further develop our networks and infrastructure to prevent, detect, and address the risk of unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses and other events. Our preventative measures and incident response efforts may not be effective in all cases. The theft, destruction, loss, misappropriation, or release of sensitive and/or confidential information or intellectual property, or interference with our information technology systems or the technology systems of third parties on which we rely, could result in business disruption, direct financial loss, negative publicity, brand damage, alleged

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violation of privacy laws, loss of customers, potential regulatory enforcement or private litigation liability and competitive disadvantage.

Further, as the Company pursues its strategy to grow through acquisitions and to pursue new initiatives that improve our operations and cost structure, the Company is also expanding and improving its information technologies, resulting in a larger technological presence and corresponding exposure to cybersecurity risk. Certain new technologies, such as use of autonomous vehicles, remote-controlled equipment and virtual reality, present new and significant cybersecurity safety risks that must be analyzed and addressed before implementation. If we fail to assess and identify cybersecurity risks associated with acquisitions and new initiatives, we may become increasingly vulnerable to such risks.

Increasing regulatory focus on privacy and data protection issues and expanding laws could negatively impact our business, subject us to criticism and expose us to increased liability.

The legislative and regulatory framework for privacy and data protection issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We collect certain personally identifiable information and other sensitive information as integral parts of our business and in connection with providing services to our customers. We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the collection and use of such information obtained from individuals and businesses. These laws and regulations are inconsistent across jurisdictions and are subject to evolving interpretations. Government officials, regulators, privacy advocates and class action attorneys are increasingly scrutinizing how companies collect, process, use, store, share and transmit personal data. We must continually monitor the development and adoption of new and emerging laws and regulations, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) that took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA, among other things, contains new disclosure obligations for businesses that collect personal information about California residents and affords those individuals new rights relating to their personal information that can expand the scope of our potential liability. We must commit substantial time and resources toward compliance with the CCPA and similar laws and regulations, Any inability, or perceived inability, to adequately address privacy and data protection concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies, industry standards, contractual obligations, or other legal obligations, including at newly acquired companies, could subject us to regulatory enforcement, private litigation, public criticism, disrupt our operations, cause us to lose customers, result in additional costs and legal liability, damage our reputation, and otherwise harm our business.

Our operating expenses could increase as a result of labor unions organizing or changes in regulations related to labor unions.

Labor unions continually attempt to organize our employees, and these efforts will likely continue in the future. Certain groups of our employees are currently represented by unions, and we have negotiated collective bargaining agreements with these unions. Additional groups of employees may seek union representation in the future, and, if successful, would enhance organized labor’s leverage to obtain higher than expected wage and benefits costs and resist the introduction of new technology and other initiatives, which can result in increased operating expenses and lower net income. If we are unable to negotiate acceptable collective bargaining agreements, our operating expenses could increase significantly as a result of work stoppages, including strikes. Any of these matters could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We could face significant liabilities for withdrawal from Multiemployer Pension Plans.

We are a participating employer in a number of trustee-managed multiemployer defined benefit pension plans (“Multiemployer Pension Plans”) for employees who are covered by collective bargaining agreements. In the event of our withdrawal from a Multiemployer Pension Plan, we may incur expenses associated with our obligations for unfunded vested benefits at the time of the withdrawal. Depending on various factors, future withdrawals could have a material adverse effect on results of operations or cash flows for a particular reporting period. See Notes 10 and 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information related to our participation in Multiemployer Pension Plans.

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Our business is subject to operational and safety risks, including the risk of personal injury to employees and others.

Providing environmental and waste management services, including constructing and operating landfills, transfer stations, MRFs and other disposal facilities, involves risks such as truck accidents, equipment defects, malfunctions and failures. Additionally, we closely monitor and manage landfills to minimize the risk of waste mass instability, releases of hazardous materials, and odors that are sometimes triggered by weather or natural disasters. There are also risks presented by the potential for subsurface heat reactions causing elevated landfill temperatures and increased production of leachate, landfill gas and odors. We also build and operate natural gas fueling stations, some of which also serve the public or third parties. Operation of fueling stations and landfill gas collection and control systems involves additional risks of fire and explosion. Any of these risks could potentially result in injury or death of employees and others, a need to shut down or reduce operation of facilities, increased operating expense and exposure to liability for pollution and other environmental damage, and property damage or destruction.

While we seek to minimize our exposure to such risks through comprehensive training, compliance and response and recovery programs, as well as vehicle and equipment maintenance programs, if we were to incur substantial liabilities in excess of any applicable insurance, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. Any such incidents could also tarnish our reputation and reduce the value of our brand. Additionally, a major operational failure, even if suffered by a competitor, may bring enhanced scrutiny and regulation of our industry, with a corresponding increase in operating expense.

We have substantial financial assurance and insurance requirements, and increases in the costs of obtaining adequate financial assurance, or the inadequacy of our insurance coverages, could negatively impact our liquidity and increase our liabilities.

The amount of insurance we are required to maintain for environmental liability is governed by statutory requirements. We believe that the cost for such insurance is high relative to the coverage it would provide and, therefore, our coverages are generally maintained at the minimum statutorily-required levels. We face the risk of incurring additional costs for environmental damage if our insurance coverage is ultimately inadequate to cover those damages. We also carry a broad range of other insurance coverages that are customary for a company our size. We use these programs to mitigate risk of loss, thereby enabling us to manage our self-insurance exposure associated with claims. The inability of our insurers to meet their commitments in a timely manner and the effect of significant claims or litigation against insurance companies may subject us to additional risks. To the extent our insurers are unable to meet their obligations, or our own obligations for claims are more than we estimated, there could be a material adverse effect to our financial results.

In addition, to fulfill our financial assurance obligations with respect to variable-rate tax-exempt debt, final capping, closure, post-closure and environmental remediation obligations, we generally obtain letters of credit or surety bonds, rely on insurance, including captive insurance, fund trust and escrow accounts or rely upon WM financial guarantees. We currently have in place all financial assurance instruments necessary for our operations. Our financial position, which can be negatively affected by asset impairments, our credit profile and general economic factors, may adversely affect the cost of our current financial assurance instruments, and changes in regulations may impose stricter requirements on the types of financial assurance that will be accepted. Additionally, in the event we are unable to obtain sufficient surety bonding, letters of credit or third-party insurance coverage at reasonable cost, or one or more states cease to view captive insurance as adequate coverage, we would need to rely on other forms of financial assurance. It is possible that we could be forced to deposit cash to collateralize our obligations. Other forms of financial assurance could be more expensive to obtain, and any requirements to use cash to support our obligations would negatively impact our liquidity and capital resources and could affect our ability to meet our obligations as they become due.

We may record material charges against our earnings due to impairments to our assets.

In accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”), we capitalize certain expenditures and advances relating to disposal site development, expansion projects, acquisitions, software development costs and other projects. Events that have in the past and may in the future lead to an impairment include, but are not limited to, shutting down a facility or operation or abandoning a development project or the denial of an expansion permit. Additionally,

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declining waste volumes and development of, and customer preference for, alternatives to traditional waste disposal could warrant asset impairments. If we determine an asset or expansion project is impaired, we will charge against earnings any unamortized capitalized expenditures and advances relating to such asset or project reduced by any portion of the capitalized costs that we estimate will be recoverable, through sale or otherwise. We also carry a significant amount of goodwill on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, which is required to be assessed for impairment annually, and more frequently in the case of certain triggering events. We have in the past and may in the future be required to incur charges against earnings if such impairment tests indicate that the fair value of a reporting unit is below its carrying amount. Any such charges could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our capital requirements and our business strategy could increase our expenses, cause us to change our growth and development plans, or result in an inability to maintain our desired credit profile.

If economic conditions or other risks and uncertainties cause a significant reduction in our cash flows from operations, we may reduce or suspend capital expenditures, growth and acquisition activity, implementation of our business strategy, dividend declarations or share repurchases. We may choose to incur indebtedness to pay for these activities, although our access to capital markets is not assured and we may not be able to incur indebtedness at a cost that is consistent with current borrowing rates. We also may need to incur indebtedness to refinance scheduled debt maturities, and it is possible that the cost of financing could increase significantly, thereby increasing our expenses and decreasing our net income. Further, our ability to execute our financial strategy and our ability to incur indebtedness is somewhat dependent upon our ability to maintain investment grade credit ratings on our senior debt. The credit rating process is contingent upon our credit profile and several other factors, many of which are beyond our control, including methodologies established and interpreted by third-party rating agencies. If we were unable to maintain our investment grade credit ratings in the future, our interest expense would increase and our ability to obtain financing on favorable terms could be adversely affected.

Additionally, we have $1.0 billion of debt as of December 31, 2019 that is exposed to changes in market interest rates within the next 12 months because of the impact of our tax-exempt bonds. If interest rates increase, our interest expense would also increase, lowering our net income and decreasing our cash flow.

We may use our $3.5 billion revolving credit facility to meet our cash needs, to the extent available, until maturity in November 2024. As of December 31, 2019, we had no outstanding borrowings and $412 million of letters of credit issued and supported by the facility, leaving unused and available credit capacity of $3.1 billion. In the event of a default under our credit facility, we could be required to immediately repay all outstanding borrowings and make cash deposits as collateral for all obligations the facility supports, which we may not be able to do. Additionally, any such default could cause a default under many of our other credit agreements and debt instruments. Without waivers from lenders party to those agreements, any such default would have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue to operate.

The impact of climate change, and the adoption of climate change legislation or regulations restricting emissions of “greenhouse gases,” could increase our costs to operate.

We continue to assess the physical risks to our operations from the effects of climate change. Although we have made investments to mitigate risk associated with severe storm events, damage to our facilities or disruption of service caused by more frequent or more severe storms associated with climate extremes could negatively impact operating results. We have also identified risk to our assets and our employees associated with drought or water scarcity, flooding, extreme heat and rain events, and fire conditions associated with climate change. For example, wildfires influenced by climate change can damage landfill infrastructure such as gas collection systems, flooding in low-lying areas enhanced by sea level rise can result in greater maintenance expenses at our facilities and service disruption, and more frequent or extreme rain events can erode the protective vegetative caps on our landfills and generate increased volumes of leachate to manage. Those areas of the country most prone to these occurrences have protocols in place, or are developing protocols to address these conditions, including employee safety, driver training, and equipment and facility protection protocols. We have incurred and will incur costs to develop and implement these protocols, and these protocols may not be effective in offsetting these risks. Additionally, the actions of others in response to climate change effects, such as the rolling power blackouts implemented in California in 2019 due to wildfire risks, can result in service disruptions and increase our costs to operate.

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Our landfill operations emit methane, identified as a GHG. There are a number of legislative and regulatory efforts at the state, provincial, regional and federal levels to cap and/or curtail the emission of GHGs to ameliorate the effect of climate change. We continue to monitor these efforts and the potential impacts to our operations. Should comprehensive federal climate change legislation be enacted, we expect it could impose costs on our operations that might not be offset by the revenue increases associated with our lower-carbon service options, the materiality of which we cannot predict. In 2010, the EPA published a Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V GHG Tailoring Rule, which expanded the EPA’s federal air permitting authority to include the six GHGs. The rule sets new thresholds for GHG emissions that define when Clean Air Act permits are required. The current requirements of these rules have not significantly affected our operations or cash flows, due to the tailored thresholds and exclusions of certain emissions from regulation; however, if certain changes to these regulations were enacted, such as lowering the thresholds or the inclusion of biogenic emissions, then the amendments could have an adverse effect on our operating costs.

The seasonal nature of our business, severe weather events resulting from climate change and event driven special projects cause our results to fluctuate, and prior performance is not necessarily indicative of our future results.

Our operating revenues tend to be somewhat higher in summer months, primarily due to the higher construction and demolition waste volumes. The volumes of industrial and residential waste in certain regions where we operate also tend to increase during the summer months. Our second and third quarter revenues and results of operations typically reflect these seasonal trends.

Service disruptions caused by severe storms, extended periods of inclement weather or climate extremes resulting from climate change can significantly affect the operating results of the Areas affected. On the other hand, certain destructive weather and climate conditions, such as wildfires in the Western U.S. and hurricanes that most often impact our operations in the Southern and Eastern U.S. during the second half of the year, can increase our revenues in the Areas affected as a result of the waste volumes generated by these events. While weather-related and other event driven special projects can boost revenues through additional work for a limited time, due to significant start-up costs and other factors, such revenue can generate earnings at comparatively lower margins.

For these and other reasons, operating results in any interim period are not necessarily indicative of operating results for an entire year, and operating results for any historical period are not necessarily indicative of operating results for a future period. Our stock price may be negatively impacted by interim variations in our results.

We could be subject to significant fines and penalties, and our reputation could be adversely affected, if our businesses, or third parties with whom we have a relationship, were to fail to comply with U.S. or foreign laws or regulations.

Some of our projects and new business may be conducted in countries where corruption has historically been prevalent. It is our policy to comply with all applicable anti-bribery laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and with applicable local laws of the foreign countries in which we operate, and we monitor our local partners’ compliance with such laws as well. Our reputation may be adversely affected if we were reported to be associated with corrupt practices or if we or our local partners failed to comply with such laws. Such damage to our reputation could adversely affect our ability to grow our business. Additionally, violations of such laws could subject us to significant fines and penalties.

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Currently pending or future litigation or governmental proceedings could result in material adverse consequences, including judgments or settlements.

From time to time we are involved in governmental proceedings relating to the conduct of our business. We are also party to civil litigation. As a large company with operations across the U.S. and Canada, we are subject to various proceedings, lawsuits, disputes and claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. Actions that have been filed against us, and that may be filed against us in the future, include personal injury, property damage, commercial, customer, and employment-related claims, including purported state and national class action lawsuits related to:

alleged environmental contamination, including releases of hazardous materials and odors;
sales and marketing practices, customer service agreements, prices and fees; and
federal and state wage and hour and other laws.

The timing of the final resolutions to these types of matters is often uncertain. Additionally, the possible outcomes or resolutions to these matters could include adverse judgments or settlements, either of which could require substantial payments, adversely affecting our liquidity.

We may experience adverse impacts on our reported results of operations as a result of adopting new accounting standards or interpretations.

Our implementation of and compliance with changes in accounting rules, including new accounting rules and interpretations, could adversely affect our reported financial position or operating results or cause unanticipated fluctuations in our reported operating results in future periods.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Our principal executive offices are in Houston, Texas, where we occupy approximately 345,000 square feet under leases expiring through 2020. We plan to relocate our principal executive offices within Houston, Texas during 2020. We also have administrative offices in Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois and India. We own or lease real property in most locations where we have operations or administrative functions. We have operations in all 50 states except Montana, the District of Columbia and throughout Canada.

Our principal property and equipment consist of land (primarily landfills and other disposal facilities, transfer stations and bases for collection operations), buildings, vehicles and equipment. We believe that our operating properties, vehicles and equipment are adequately maintained and sufficient for our current operations. However, we expect to continue to make investments in additional property and equipment for expansion, for the replacement of aging assets and investment in assets that support our strategy of continuous improvement through efficiency and innovation. For more information, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included within this report.

The following table summarizes our various operations as of December 31:

    

2019

    

2018

Landfills owned or operated (a)

 

249

 

252

Transfer stations

 

302

 

314

Material recovery facilities

 

103

 

102

(a)As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, our landfills owned or operated consisted of total acreage of 159,080 and 157,369; permitted acreage of 42,992 and 42,730; and expansion acreage of 795 and 944, respectively. Total acreage includes

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permitted acreage, expansion acreage, other acreage available for future disposal that has not been permitted, buffer land and other land. Permitted acreage consists of all acreage at the landfill encompassed by an active permit to dispose of waste. Expansion acreage consists of unpermitted acreage where the related expansion efforts meet our criteria to be included as expansion airspace. A discussion of the related criteria is included within Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Estimates and Assumptions included within this report.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

Information regarding our legal proceedings can be found under the Environmental Matters and Litigation sections of Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included within this report.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Information concerning mine safety and other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95 to this annual report.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “WM.” The number of holders of record of our common stock on February 7, 2020 was 8,712.

The graph below shows the relative investment performance of Waste Management, Inc. common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones Waste & Disposal Services Index for the last five years, assuming reinvestment of dividends at date of payment into the common stock. The graph is presented pursuant to SEC rules and is not meant to be an indication of our future performance.

Graphic

    

12/31/14

    

12/31/15

    

12/31/16

    

12/31/17

    

12/31/18

    

12/31/19

Waste Management, Inc.

$

100

$

107

$

146

$

182

$

192

$

250

S&P 500 Index

$

100

$

101

$

114

$

138

$

132

$

174

Dow Jones Waste & Disposal Services Index

$

100

$

104

$

126

$

148

$

148

$

200

The Company repurchases shares of its common stock as part of capital allocation programs authorized by our Board of Directors. In December 2019, we publicly confirmed that the Company has $1.32 billion remaining on its existing Board of Directors’ authorization for future share repurchases. During 2019, we repurchased an aggregate of $244 million of our common stock under accelerated share repurchase agreements and open market repurchases, which equated to 2.3 million shares with a weighted average price per share of $108.60. See Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Any future share repurchases will be made at the discretion of management and will depend on various factors including our net earnings, financial condition and cash required for future business plans, growth and acquisitions.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The information below was derived from the audited Consolidated Financial Statements included within this report and in previous annual reports we filed with the SEC. This information should be read together with those Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto. These historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

Years Ended December 31,

    

    

2019(a)

    

2018(a)

    

2017(a)

    

2016

    

2015

(In Millions, Except per Share Amounts)

Statement of Operations Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Operating revenues

$

15,455

$

14,914

$

14,485

$

13,609

$

12,961

Consolidated net income

 

1,671

 

1,923

 

1,949

 

1,180

 

752

Net income attributable to Waste Management, Inc.

 

1,670

 

1,925

 

1,949

 

1,182

 

753

Basic earnings per common share

 

3.93

 

4.49

 

4.44

 

2.66

 

1.66

Diluted earnings per common share

 

3.91

 

4.45

 

4.41

 

2.65

 

1.65

Balance Sheet Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Working capital (deficit) (b)

$

3,065

$

(463)

$

(568)

$

(418)

$

(165)

Total assets (b)

 

27,743

 

22,650

 

21,829

 

20,859

 

20,367

Long-term debt, including current portion

 

13,498

 

10,026

 

9,491

 

9,310

 

8,929

Total Waste Management, Inc. stockholders’ equity

 

7,068

 

6,275

 

6,019

 

5,297

 

5,345

Total equity

 

7,070

 

6,276

 

6,042

 

5,320

 

5,367

(a)For more information see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
(b)For disclosures associated with the impact of the adoption of new accounting standards on the comparability of this information, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report.

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

This section includes a discussion of our results of operations for the three years ended December 31, 2019. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements that anticipate results based on management’s plans that are subject to uncertainty. We discuss in more detail various factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations in Item 1A. Risk Factors. The following discussion should be read considering those disclosures and together with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto.

Overview

We are North America’s leading provider of comprehensive waste management environmental services. We partner with our residential, commercial, industrial and municipal customers and the communities we serve to manage and reduce waste at each stage from collection to disposal, while recovering valuable resources and creating clean, renewable energy. We own or operate the largest network of landfills in North America. In order to make disposal more practical for larger urban markets, where the distance to landfills is typically farther, we manage transfer stations that consolidate, compact and transport waste efficiently and economically. We also use waste to create energy, recovering the gas produced naturally as waste decomposes in landfills and using the gas in generators to make electricity. Additionally, we are a leading recycler in North America, handling materials that include paper, cardboard, glass, plastic and metal. Our “Solid Waste” business is operated and managed locally by our subsidiaries that focus on distinct geographic areas and provides collection, transfer, disposal, and recycling and resource recovery services. Through our subsidiaries, we are also a leading developer, operator and owner of landfill gas-to-energy facilities in the U.S.

Our Solid Waste operating revenues are primarily generated from fees charged for our collection, transfer, disposal, and recycling and resource recovery services, and from sales of commodities by our recycling and landfill gas-to-energy operations. Revenues from our collection operations are influenced by factors such as collection frequency, type of

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collection equipment furnished, type and volume or weight of the waste collected, distance to the disposal facility or material recovery facility and our disposal costs. Revenues from our landfill operations consist of tipping fees, which are generally based on the type and weight or volume of waste being disposed of at our disposal facilities. Fees charged at transfer stations are generally based on the weight or volume of waste deposited, taking into account our cost of loading, transporting and disposing of the solid waste at a disposal site. Recycling revenues generally consist of tipping fees and the sale of recycling commodities to third parties. The fees we charge for our services generally include our environmental fee, fuel surcharge and regulatory recovery fee which are intended to pass through to customers direct and indirect costs incurred. We also provide additional services that are not managed through our Solid Waste business, described under Results of Operations below.

Business Environment

The waste industry is a comparatively mature and stable industry. However, customers increasingly expect more of their waste materials to be recovered and those waste streams are becoming more complex. In addition, many state and local governments mandate diversion, recycling and waste reduction at the source and prohibit the disposal of certain types of waste at landfills. We monitor these developments to adapt our services offerings. As companies, individuals and communities look for ways to be more sustainable, we promote our comprehensive services that go beyond our core business of collecting and disposing of waste in order to meet their needs.

Despite some industry consolidation in recent years, we encounter intense competition from governmental, quasi-governmental and private service providers based on pricing, service quality, customer experience and breadth of service offerings. Our industry is directly affected by changes in general economic factors, including increases and decreases in consumer spending, business expansions and construction starts. These factors generally correlate to volumes of waste generated and impact our revenue. Negative economic conditions, in addition to competitor actions, can make it more challenging to negotiate, renew or expand service contracts with acceptable margins and in addition, customers may reduce their service needs. We also encounter competition for acquisitions and growth opportunities. General economic factors and the market for consumer goods, in addition to regulatory developments, can also significantly impact commodity prices for the recyclable materials we sell. Our operating expenses are directly impacted by volume levels; as volume levels shift, due to economic and other factors, we must manage our network capacity and cost structure accordingly.

In 2019, we have benefited from a generally favorable macro-economic environment, including steady spending by consumers and businesses, which have led to volume and gross margin growth. We experienced growth in our collection and disposal lines of business, particularly in the segments of our business driven by the consumer portion of the economy. Volume growth is also the result of proactive efforts taken to work with our customers as their needs expand to identify service upgrade opportunities. Overall in 2019, our landfill volumes were favorably impacted by growth in our municipal solid waste business, clean-up efforts from natural disasters in California during 2019 and event-driven projects. The portion of our business driven by the industrial segment of the economy, such as special waste, continues to show growth, although the pace of growth is starting to moderate as large industrial customers take a more cautious approach to awarding work for special projects. Additionally, we continued our focus on developing a sustainable recycling business model that meets customers’ environmental needs, but is also economically sustainable. Given pressures on the business from lower market values for recycled commodities and higher contamination fees, we have been working to improve its financial returns by driving a fee-based pricing model that addresses the cost of processing materials and the impact on our costs of contamination. These efforts provided significant value to our 2019 results, though that value was more than offset by continued declines in market prices for recycled commodities. We will continue to take steps necessary to improve long-term profitability of our recycling line of business.

Overall, the Company’s operations performed well in 2019. We expect the Company’s industry-leading asset network and strategic focuses on investing in people, technology and growth to drive continued growth in the year ahead.

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Current Year Financial Results

During 2019, we continued to produce strong operating results from our collection and disposal business, driven by favorable market conditions and our focus on delivering an outstanding customer experience and continuous improvement. The Company continued its commitment to supporting both organic and inorganic growth during 2019, allocating $1,818 million of available cash to capital expenditures and $527 million to the acquisition of solid waste businesses, of which $6 million was recorded as cash flow from financing activities related to the timing of contingent consideration paid. We also allocated $1,124 million to our shareholders during 2019 through dividends and common stock repurchases.

Key items of our 2019 financial results include:

Revenues of $15,455 million for 2019 compared with $14,914 million in 2018, an increase of $541 million, or 3.6%. The increase is primarily attributable to (i) higher yield and volumes in our collection and disposal business and (ii) acquisitions, net of divestitures, partially offset by lower market prices for recycling commodities;
Operating expenses of $9,496 million in 2019, or 61.4% of revenues, compared with $9,249 million, or 62.0% of revenues, in 2018. The $247 million increase is primarily attributable to higher volumes and cost inflation in the current year period, partially offset by (i) decreased cost of goods sold primarily due to lower market prices for recycling commodities and (ii) the favorable impact of a year-over-year increase in federal natural gas fuel credits;
Selling, general and administrative expenses of $1,631 million in 2019, or 10.6% of revenues, compared with $1,453 million, or 9.7% of revenues, in 2018. This increase of $178 million is primarily attributable to (i) higher costs associated with planned investments in our people and technology; (ii) increased acquisition-related costs and (iii) litigation reserves;
Income from operations of $2,706 million, or 17.5% of revenues, in 2019 compared with $2,789 million, or 18.7% of revenues, in 2018. Although 2019 benefited from strong operating results, primarily in our collection and disposal business, and the favorable impact of a year-over-year increase in federal natural gas fuel credits, cost inflation across various cost categories, costs associated with investments in our people and technology, acquisition-related costs and goodwill impairments drove a reduction in income from operations as compared with 2018. Additionally, 2018 was favorably impacted by net gains associated with the sale of certain collection and disposal operations and certain ancillary operations, partially offset by the impairment of a landfill;
Net income attributable to Waste Management, Inc. was $1,670 million, or $3.91 per diluted share, compared with $1,925 million, or $4.45 per diluted share, in the prior year period. In addition to the decrease in income from operations, the current year was impacted by (i) increased depreciation and amortization expense related to new collection fleet and increased landfill volume; (ii) an $85 million loss on early extinguishment of debt; (iii) a $52 million impairment charge related to our minority-owned investment in a waste conversion technology business that was not deductible for tax purposes and (iv) a $27 million impairment of goodwill. Additionally, the prior year period was favorably impacted by net gains associated with the sale of operations discussed above;
Net cash provided by operating activities was $3,874 million compared with $3,570 million in the prior year period; and
Free cash flow was $2,105 million compared with $2,084 million in the prior year period. The increase in cash flow provided by operating activities noted above was offset by an increase in capital expenditures resulting from our intentional focus on accelerating certain collection fleet and landfill spending to support the Company’s strong collection and disposal growth and lower proceeds from divestitures, which resulted in free cash flow being $21 million higher on a year-over-year basis. Free cash flow is a non-GAAP measure of liquidity. Refer to Free Cash Flow within Liquidity and Capital Resources for our definition of free cash flow, additional information about our use of this measure, and a reconciliation to net cash provided by operating activities, which is the most comparable GAAP measure.

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Results of Operations

Operating Revenues

Our operating revenues set forth below are primarily generated from fees charged for our collection, transfer, disposal, and recycling and resource recovery services, and from sales of commodities by our recycling and landfill gas-to-energy operations. We also provide additional services that are not managed through our Solid Waste business, including both our WMSBS and EES organizations, recycling brokerage services, landfill gas-to-energy services and certain other expanded service offerings and solutions.

The mix of operating revenues from our major lines of business is reflected in the table below for the years ended December 31 (in millions):

    

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

Commercial

$

4,229

$

3,972

$

3,714

Residential

 

2,613

 

2,529

 

2,528

Industrial

 

2,916

 

2,773

 

2,583

Other collection

 

482

 

450

 

439

Total collection

 

10,240

 

9,724

 

9,264

Landfill

 

3,846

 

3,560

 

3,370

Transfer

 

1,820

 

1,711

 

1,591

Recycling

 

1,040

 

1,293

 

1,432

Other (a)

 

1,758

 

1,736

 

1,713

Intercompany (b)

 

(3,249)

 

(3,110)

 

(2,885)

Total

$

15,455

$

14,914

$

14,485

(a)The “Other” line of business includes (i) our WMSBS organization; (ii) our landfill gas-to-energy operations; (iii) certain services within our EES organization, including our construction and remediation services and our services associated with the disposal of fly ash and (iv) certain other expanded service offerings and solutions. In addition, our “Other” line of business reflects the results of non-operating entities that provide financial assurance and self-insurance support, net of intercompany activity. Activity related to collection, landfill, transfer and recycling has been reclassified to the appropriate line of business for purposes of presentation.
(b)Intercompany revenues between lines of business are eliminated in the Consolidated Financial Statements included within this report.

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The following table provides details associated with the period-to-period change in revenues and average yield for the years ended December 31 (dollars in millions):

2019 vs. 2018

 

2018 vs. 2017

 

As a % of

As a % of

 

As a % of

 

As a % of

 

Related

Total

 

Related

 

Total

 

    

Amount

    

Business(a)

    

  

Amount

    

Company(b)

    

Amount

    

Business(a)

    

  

Amount

    

Company(b)

Collection and disposal

$

364

2.8

%

$

291

2.3

%

Recycling commodities (c)

 

(248)

(20.0)

 

 

(273)

(19.1)

 

Fuel surcharges and mandated fees

 

(22)

(3.5)

 

 

111

21.3

 

Total average yield (d)

 

$

94

0.6

%

 

$

129

0.9

%

Volume

 

 

346

2.3

 

 

478

3.3

Internal revenue growth

440

2.9

607

4.2

Acquisitions

222

1.5

199

1.4

Divestitures

(104)

(0.7)

(133)

(0.9)

Foreign currency translation and other

(17)

(0.1)

(244)

(1.7)

Total

$

541

3.6

%

$

429

3.0

%

(a)Calculated by dividing the increase or decrease for the current year by the prior year’s related business revenue adjusted to exclude the impacts of divestitures for the current year.
(b)Calculated by dividing the increase or decrease for the current year by the prior year’s total Company revenue adjusted to exclude the impacts of divestitures for the current year.
(c)Includes net impact of commodity price variability and changes in fees.
(d)The amounts reported herein represent the changes in our revenue attributable to average yield for the total Company.

The following provides further details about our period-to-period change in revenues:

Average Yield

Collection and Disposal Average Yield — This measure reflects the effect on our revenue from the pricing activities of our collection, transfer and landfill operations, exclusive of volume changes. Revenue growth from collection and disposal average yield includes not only base rate changes and environmental and service fee increases, but also (i) certain average price changes related to the overall mix of services, which are due to the types of services provided; (ii) changes in average price from new and lost business and (iii) price decreases to retain customers.

The details of our revenue growth from collection and disposal average yield for the years ended December 31 are as follows (dollars in millions):

 

2019 vs. 2018

 

2018 vs. 2017

As a % of

 

As a % of

Related

 

Related

    

Amount

        

Business

    

Amount

        

Business

 

Commercial

$

109

3.0

%  

$

99

2.9

%

Industrial

 

103

4.0

 

107

4.4

Residential

 

81

3.3

 

47

1.9

Total collection

 

293

3.3

 

253

2.9

Landfill

 

44

2.0

 

22

1.1

Transfer

 

27

2.9

 

16

1.9

Total collection and disposal

$

364

2.8

%  

$

291

2.3

%

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Our strategic pricing efforts focus on ensuring we overcome inflationary cost pressures and grow margins. This strategy has been most successful in our collection line of business for both 2019 and 2018. We are also experiencing solid growth in our landfill and transfer businesses, with our municipal solid waste business experiencing 3.8% and 2.2% average yield growth for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, as compared with the prior year periods.

Recycling Commodities — Decreases in the market prices for recycling commodities resulted in revenue declines of $248 million and $273 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, as compared with the prior year periods. We partially offset our revenue decline by assessing fees to cover the higher costs of handling contaminated recycling materials. Average market prices for recycling commodities at the Company’s facilities were 35% lower in 2019 compared to 2018 and 40% lower in 2018 compared to 2017. We have seen a decreased demand from paper mills around the world which had driven prices to historical low averages. There are several domestic mill projects anticipated to start during 2020 that we expect will add additional capacity and more local demand for recycled materials. However, we do not expect material changes in market prices for recycling commodities as a result of this additional capacity. The cardboard packaging industry has been impacted by slower global demand, retail store closures and e-commerce packaging efficiency. We will continue to take steps necessary to improve long-term profitability of our recycling line of business.

Fuel Surcharges and Mandated Fees — These fees, which are predominantly generated by our fuel surcharge program, declined $22 million for 2019 and increased $111 million for 2018, as compared with the prior year periods. These revenues are based on and fluctuate in response to changes in the national average prices for diesel fuel. Market prices for diesel fuel decreased approximately 4% and increased 20% for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, compared with the prior year periods. The decline in fuel surcharges for 2019 was partially offset by an increase in mandated fees. The mandated fees are primarily related to fees and taxes assessed by various state, county and municipal government agencies at our landfills and transfer stations.

Volume

Our revenues from volume increased $346 million, or 2.3%, and $478 million, or 3.3%, for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, as compared with the prior year periods, excluding volumes from acquisitions and divestitures.

We experienced higher volumes throughout 2019 and 2018 due to our focus on customer service and disciplined growth, combined with favorable market conditions in our collection and disposal business. We have experienced significant volume growth with existing customers, particularly in our commercial collection business as a result of proactive efforts taken to work with our customers as their needs expand to identify service upgrade opportunities. Our event-driven projects in our special waste business and growth in our municipal solid waste business contributed to our landfill volume growth in both 2019 and 2018. Additionally, a large contract executed in the second half of 2017 increased volume at our transfer stations for 2018, with incremental volume additions during 2018 that favorably impacted our volumes in 2019. Furthermore, our WMSBS organization experienced favorable volume growth in both 2019 and 2018.

The clean-up efforts of natural disasters throughout the U.S. in the first half of 2019 also contributed to volume growth in 2019. However, volume decline from our recycling brokerage services negatively impacted our volume growth in 2019. Additionally, a volume increase from our recycling brokerage services affected the comparability of volumes for 2018 and 2017.

Foreign Currency Translation and Other

Fluctuations in foreign currency affect revenues from our Canadian operations. Additionally, 2018 was unfavorably impacted by a revenue decline associated with the adoption of ASU 2014-09.

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Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses are comprised of (i) labor and related benefits costs (excluding labor costs associated with maintenance and repairs discussed below), which include salaries and wages, bonuses, related payroll taxes, insurance and benefits costs and the costs associated with contract labor; (ii) transfer and disposal costs, which include tipping fees paid to third-party disposal facilities and transfer stations; (iii) maintenance and repairs costs relating to equipment, vehicles and facilities and related labor costs; (iv) subcontractor costs, which include the costs of independent haulers who transport waste collected by us to disposal facilities and are affected by variables such as volumes, distance and fuel prices; (v) costs of goods sold, which includes the cost to purchase recycling materials for our recycling line of business, including certain rebates paid to suppliers; (vi) fuel costs, which represent the costs of fuel and oil to operate our truck fleet and landfill operating equipment; (vii) disposal and franchise fees and taxes, which include landfill taxes, municipal franchise fees, host community fees, contingent landfill lease payments and royalties; (viii) landfill operating costs, which include interest accretion on landfill liabilities, interest accretion on and discount rate adjustments to environmental remediation liabilities and recovery assets, leachate and methane collection and treatment, landfill remediation costs and other landfill site costs; (ix) risk management costs, which include general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation claims programs costs and (x) other operating costs, which include gains and losses on sale of assets, telecommunications, equipment and facility lease expenses, property taxes, utilities and supplies. Variations in volumes year-over-year, as discussed above in Operating Revenues, in addition to cost inflation, affect the comparability of the components of our operating expenses.

The following table summarizes the major components of our operating expenses for the years ended December 31 (dollars in millions and as a percentage of revenues):

    

2019

    

2018

  

2017

Labor and related benefits

$

2,791

    

18.0

%

$

2,703

    

18.1

%

$

2,500

    

17.2

%

Transfer and disposal costs

 

1,160

7.5

 

1,105

7.4

 

996

6.9

Maintenance and repairs

 

1,355

8.8

 

1,255

8.4

 

1,170

8.1

Subcontractor costs

 

1,532

9.9

 

1,375

9.2

 

1,236

8.5

Cost of goods sold

 

553

3.6

 

783

5.3

 

969

6.7

Fuel

 

336

2.2

 

409

2.7

 

375

2.6

Disposal and franchise fees and taxes

 

627

4.1

 

598

4.0

 

753

5.2

Landfill operating costs

 

379

2.4

 

331

2.2

 

328

2.3

Risk management

 

267

1.7

 

235

1.6

 

219

1.5

Other

 

496

3.2

 

455

3.1

 

475

3.3

$

9,496

61.4

%

$

9,249

62.0

%  

$

9,021

62.3

%

Significant items affecting the comparison of operating expenses between reported periods include:

Labor and Related Benefits — The increase in labor and related benefits costs in 2019 as compared with 2018 was driven by (i) volume growth in our collection and disposal business; (ii) merit increases and (iii) cost inflation noted above. These cost increases were offset, in part, by lower bonus costs related to a one-time plan established in early 2018 targeted at improving employee retention. The increase in labor and related benefits costs in 2018 as compared with 2017 was driven by (i) volume growth in our collection line of business; (ii) the one-time bonus plan established in early 2018 and (iii) merit increases.

Transfer and Disposal Costs — The increase in transfer and disposal costs in 2019 as compared with 2018, and 2018 as compared with 2017, was driven by overall volume growth in our collection and disposal business and, to a lesser extent, cost inflation.

Maintenance and Repairs — The increase in maintenance and repairs costs in 2019 as compared with 2018 was largely driven by (i) cost inflation noted above which primarily impacted labor, parts, third-party services, tires and building costs and (ii) a $16 million non-cash charge to write off certain equipment costs related to our Other segment.

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The increase in maintenance and repairs costs in 2018 as compared with 2017 was primarily driven by (i) higher labor costs from volume growth and cost inflation and (ii) higher third-party service and parts costs.

Subcontractor Costs — The increase in subcontractor costs in 2019 as compared to 2018 was primarily driven by (i) volume growth in our collection and disposal business, largely attributable to a significant contract executed in the second half of 2017 that generated incremental volumes in 2019; (ii) volume growth in our WMSBS and EES organizations and (iii) cost inflation related to capacity constraints of our subcontractors in certain markets. The increase in 2018 as compared to 2017 was driven primarily by volume growth in our collection and disposal business.

Cost of Goods Sold — The decrease in cost of goods sold in 2019 as compared with 2018 was primarily driven by lower market prices for recycling commodities and by lower costs due to the sale of certain ancillary operations in the second quarter of 2018. The decrease in cost of goods sold in 2018 as compared with 2017 was primarily driven by (i) lower market prices for recycling commodities and (ii) a change in accounting for certain customer rebates due to the adoption of ASU 2014-09 in 2018.

Fuel — The decrease in fuel costs in 2019 as compared with 2018 was due to (i) recognition of a $70 million benefit from the extension of federal natural gas fuel credits in 2019 compared to $28 million in 2018; (ii) lower costs resulting from the continued conversion of our fleet to natural gas vehicles and (iii) lower market prices for diesel fuel. The increase in fuel costs in 2018 as compared with 2017 was due to higher market prices for diesel fuel, partially offset by the recognition of a $28 million benefit from the extension of federal natural gas fuel credits.

Disposal and Franchise Fees and Taxes — The increase in disposal and franchise fees and taxes in 2019 as compared with 2018 was primarily related to higher volumes in our landfill line of business. The decrease in disposal and franchise fees and taxes in 2018 as compared with 2017 was driven by the adoption of ASU 2014-09 in 2018; specifically, certain franchise fees were treated as disposal fees and taxes in the prior year periods and beginning in 2018, were treated as a reduction in operating revenues in the current year period.

Landfill Operating Costs — The increase in landfill operating costs in 2019 as compared with 2018 was primarily due to higher leachate management costs driven largely by inclement weather in certain parts of North America and increased ongoing site maintenance costs. Additionally, 2019 was impacted by a decrease in the risk-free discount rate used in the measurement of our environmental remediation obligations and recovery assets due to a decrease in U.S. treasury rates. See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Risk Management — The increase in risk management costs in 2019 as compared with 2018 was primarily due to an increase in claims expense as a result of growth in the business and cost inflation. The increase in risk management costs in 2018 as compared with 2017 was primarily due to an increase in claims expense.

Other — Net gains on sales of certain assets in 2018 impacted the comparability of the reported periods.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Our selling, general and administrative expenses consist of (i) labor and related benefits costs, which include salaries, bonuses, related insurance and benefits, contract labor, payroll taxes and equity-based compensation; (ii) professional fees, which include fees for consulting, legal, audit and tax services; (iii) provision for bad debts, which includes allowances for uncollectible customer accounts and collection fees and (iv) other selling, general and administrative expenses, which include, among other costs, facility-related expenses, voice and data telecommunication, advertising, bank charges, computer costs, travel and entertainment, rentals, postage and printing. In addition, the financial impacts of litigation reserves generally are included in our “Other” selling, general and administrative expenses.

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The following table summarizes the major components of our selling, general and administrative expenses for the years ended December 31 (dollars in millions and as a percentage of revenues):

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

Labor and related benefits

$

1,020

    

6.6

%

$

957

    

6.4

%

$

1,000

    

6.9

%

Professional fees

 

183

1.2

 

113

0.8

 

102

0.7

Provision for bad debts

 

38

0.3

 

53

0.3

 

42

0.3

Other

 

390

2.5

 

330

2.2

 

324

2.2

$

1,631

10.6

%

$

1,453

9.7

%

$

1,468

10.1

%

Significant items affecting the comparison of our selling, general and administrative expenses between reported periods include:

Labor and Related Benefits — The increase in labor and related benefits costs in 2019 compared with 2018 was primarily due to (i) an increase in headcount, merit increases and higher incentive compensation and (ii) increased contract labor costs driven by our planned investments in technology. The decrease in labor and related benefits costs in 2018 compared with 2017 was primarily due to (i) lower incentive compensation accruals in 2018 and (ii) severance costs for former executives incurred in 2017, which were partially offset by merit increases and a one-time bonus plan established in early 2018 targeted at improving employee retention.

Professional Fees — The increase in professional fees in 2019 compared with 2018 was primarily driven by higher consulting fees related to our strategic investments in operating, customer facing and back-office technologies, as well as costs incurred in preparation for our pending acquisition of Advanced Disposal Services, Inc. (“Advanced Disposal”). The increase in professional fees in 2018 compared with 2017 was primarily due to the investments we are making in technology and higher legal fees.

Provision for Bad Debts — The decrease in provision for bad debts in 2019 compared with 2018 was due to (i) collection of certain fully reserved receivables and (ii) higher prior year bad debt expense associated with the bankruptcy of a strategic customer. The increase in provision of bad debts in 2018 compared with 2017 was primarily due to increased revenues and the bankruptcy of a strategic customer.

Other — The increase in other expenses in 2019 compared with 2018 was principally driven by higher litigation reserves and increased infrastructure costs associated with our investments in technology. The increase in other expenses in 2018 compared with 2017 was primarily due to higher litigation reserves in 2018, which were partially offset by lower costs associated with advertising and travel and entertainment as we continued to focus on controlling costs.

Depreciation and Amortization Expenses

The following table summarizes the components of our depreciation and amortization expenses for the years ended December 31 (dollars in millions and as a percentage of revenues):

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

 

Depreciation of tangible property and equipment

$

893

    

5.8

%

$

838

    

5.6

%

$

783

    

5.4

%

Amortization of landfill airspace

 

575

3.7

 

538

3.6

 

497

3.4

Amortization of intangible assets

 

106

0.7

 

101

0.7

 

96

0.7

$

1,574

10.2

%

$

1,477

9.9

%

$

1,376

9.5

%

The increase in depreciation of tangible property and equipment during the reported periods was primarily related to higher capital expenditures due to an intentional focus on accelerating certain fleet and landfill spending to support the Company’s strong collection and disposal growth. The increase in amortization of landfill airspace during the reported periods was driven by higher volumes at our landfills and changes in landfill estimates.

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(Gain) Loss from Divestitures, Asset Impairments and Unusual Items, Net

The following table summarizes the major components of (gain) loss from divestitures, asset impairments and unusual items, net for the years ended December 31 (in millions):

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

(Gain) loss from divestitures

$

$

(96)

$

(38)

Asset impairments

 

42

 

38

 

41

Other

 

 

 

(19)

$

42

$

(58)

$

(16)

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized asset impairments of $42 million, related to (i) $27 million of goodwill impairment charges, as discussed further in Note 6, of which $17 million related to our EES organization and $10 million related to our LampTracker® reporting unit and (ii) $15 million of asset impairment charges primarily related to certain solid waste operations.

During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recognized net gains of $58 million, primarily related to (i) a $52 million gain associated with the sale of certain collection and disposal operations in Tier 1 and (ii) net gains of $44 million substantially all from divestitures of certain ancillary operations. These gains were partially offset by (i) a $30 million charge to impair a landfill in Tier 3 based on an internally developed discounted projected cash flow analysis, taking into account continued volume decreases and revised capping cost estimates and (ii) $8 million of impairment charges primarily related to our LampTracker® reporting unit.

During the year ended December 31, 2017, we recognized net gains of $16 million, primarily related to (i) gains of $31 million from the sale of certain oil and gas producing properties and (ii) a $30 million reduction in post-closing, performance-based contingent consideration obligations associated with an acquired business in our EES organization. These gains were partially offset by (i) $34 million of goodwill impairment charges primarily related to our EES organization; (ii) $11 million of charges to adjust our subsidiary’s estimated potential share of an environmental remediation liability and related costs for a closed site in Harris County, Texas, as discussed in Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and (iii) $7 million of charges to write down certain renewable energy assets.

See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to the accounting policy and analysis involved in identifying and calculating impairments.

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Table of Contents

Income from Operations

The following table summarizes income from operations for the years ended December 31 and has been updated to reflect our realigned segments which are discussed further in Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements (dollars in millions):

Period-to-

 

Period-to-

Period

 

Period

    

2019

    

Change

    

2018

    

Change

    

2017

Solid Waste:

 

  

 

  

    

  

  

 

  

    

  

  

Tier 1

$

1,682

$

63

 

3.9

%  

$

1,619

$

113

 

7.5

%  

$

1,506

Tier 2

 

854

 

70

 

8.9

 

784

 

7

 

0.9

 

777

Tier 3

 

1,136